Pope Boniface VIII
|Papacy began||December 24, 1294|
|Papacy ended||October 11, 1303|
|Predecessor||Pope Celestine V|
|Successor||Pope Benedict XI|
|Birth name||Benedetto Caetani|
Anagni, Papal States
|Died||October 11, 1303|
|Other Popes named Boniface|
Boniface was involved in Italian and European political disputes.
Boniface VIII made a rule that if a ruler (king) fined people taxes without the church or popes' permission that the ruler would be excluded from the church. He would make rash decisions without consideration. He was known to be harsh, mean, cruel, and did not listen to other people's recommendations. For example, He declared a very rash papal law that all people, not just Christians, must follow him if they want to go to heaven. He believed as the Pope, all rulers should bow down to him and respect him.
After his deathEdit
- "List of Popes," Catholic Encyclopedia (2009); retrieved 2011-11-29.
- "Pope Boniface VIII", Catholic Encyclopedia; retrieved 2011-11-29.
- Watts, Tim. "Boniface VIII." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
- Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. C. Knight. 1836. p. 154.
- Note on ordinal numbering: Popes Boniface VIII–IX are really the 7th and 8th popes with that name. This is because Boniface VII is now classed as an antipope; but during the reign of Boniface VIII, this was not recognized. The "true" or actual seventh pope Boniface identified himself with the ordinal number VIII. In other words, the numbering of popes after the 7th Boniface needs to be explained -- compare Popes Benedict XI–XVI.
- "Abdication," Catholic Encyclopedia; retrieved 2013-2-11.
- Pennington, Kenneth. "Boniface VIII." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
- Chisholm, Hugh (1910). The Encyclopedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Encyclopedia Britannica Company. p. 207.
- Boase, Thomas Sherrer Ross. (1933). Boniface VIII. London: Constable. OCLC 1387650
Media related to Bonifacius VIII at Wikimedia Commons
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- . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Catholic Hierarchy, Pope Boniface VII
- Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Caetani