central religious text of Islam

The Qur'an (Arabic: القرآن‎) is the holy book of Islam. The Qur'an is considered by Muslims to be "The Word of Allah (God)". This book is claimed to be different from other religious texts in that it is said to be the literal words of God, through the prophet Muhammad.

It has been written and was read in the Arabic language for more than 1,400 years. But, because many Muslims around the world do not understand Arabic, the meaning of the Qur'an is also given in other languages, so that readers can understand better what the Arabic words in the Qur'an mean. These books are like dictionaries to the Qur'an - they are not read as part of the religion of Islam, to replace the Arabic Qur'an. Muslims believe that these translations are not the true Qur'an; only the Arabic copy is the true Qur'an.[1]

Sharia laws "based on the expressions and interpretations of the Qur'an" are problematic in terms of today's universal human rights, gender equality and individual religion and speech freedoms.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] One argued example by critics is apostasy in Islam, although subject to different interpretations.[source?]

Parallel stories: The finding of Moses, whose name is used 136 times in the Quran, Alma-Tadema. (Al-Qasas 7-9/Exodus 2:2-10) A similar story was told about the Akkadian king, Sargon the Great.[12]


The foregoing history of Islam has been formed by works based on collections of narrative culture. These narrations are not supported by non-Islamic sources and contain contradictions within themselves.[13] Muslims believe that (the narrative culture) Qur'an was first revealed to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel in a cave on the mountain of Hira in Mecca, and then over a period of twenty-three years until his death. The Qur'an was not written all together in book-form while Muhammad was alive; it was kept by oral communication and brief written records. The prophet did not know how to read nor write, but according to Muslims, the prophet's cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, among others, used to write the texts on something when Muhammad was alive. After prophet Muhammad died, Omar ibn Khattab, one of the khulafa u rashidan, compiled the Qur'an into a single book.

Muhammad's first revelation, Al-Alaq, placed in 96th by the later Qur'anic sequencing. (current writing style)

Scientific researchesEdit

After the death of Muawiyah II, the area approximately affected by Ibn Zubayr.

If "the works based on the narrative culture" are excluded, the early history of Islam (when it emerged, in which geography it was born and spread to the world) remains unclear today in terms of historiography.[14] In the discussions, Kufa and Al-Hirah regions (Southern Iraq) stand out besides Petra.[15][16][17]

Contrary to the as-Sīrah an-Nabawiyyah works, based on narrated rumors, some researchers believed Muhammad to be an unreal fictional personality for the following reasons:

  1. Mecca was not on the trade routes as narrated, and could not have been a trade center.
  2. In addition to the unsuitability of its land in terms of agriculture[18]
  3. It was not mentioned in history books and maps before the 8th century[19]
  4. It is revealed that it was a new settlement in archaeological researches
  5. Information about the early period of Islam The place names and features in the sources do not match with the geography of Mecca. Based on the text and archaeological research, Patricia Crone, Michael Cook, etc. hypothesized that the "Masjid al-Haram" was not located in Mecca, but in the north-west Arabian Peninsula.[20][21][22]

After the death of Muawiyah, the Kaaba was hit by catapults by the soldiers of Yazid, the black stone that was hit was divided into three parts, and the Kaaba was destroyed.[23] According to the Canadian archaeologist and researcher of Islamic history Dan Gibson, this destruction took place, not in today's city of Mecca, but about 1200 kilometers north of this, ie in Petra.

Lower Petra According to the Islamic history and archeology researcher Dan Gibson, this was the place where Mohammed lived his youth and received his first revelations.

As the first Muslim mosques and cemeteries show, it was also the first Qibla direction of Muslims.


Gibson has found that the qibla walls of the oldest mosques show Petra.[25] Combining these findings with clues in verses, hadiths, and traditional Prophetic biography sources, Gibson concluded that Muhammad lived in Petra and migrated from here to Medina. According to him, the first qibla of Muslims was not the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, but the cubic building, which was used as the El-Lât temple in Petra. This structure was destroyed during the Abdullah bin Zubayr uprising among the Muslims Second Fitna.

Ibni Zubayr had taken the black stone along with other sacred items and moved the new temple to the place where today's Mecca is, away from Umayyad attacks. The new place, which won the support of Abbasids who were fighting the Umayyads, was fully adopted after a transition period of several centuries, and the direction of the newly built mosques began to be built towards the new Mecca. However, the mosques in North Africa and Andalusia, which were under the influence of Umayyad, continued to oppose the new qibla by turning their direction in a completely different direction, South Africa.[24]

Earliest surviving fragmentsEdit

"The Sana'a Manuscripts" under ultraviolet light; by using U.V and X rays, "subtexts and changes on the text" can be revealed.

Probably the world's oldest fragments of the Koran have been found in the library of the University of Birmingham, in England.[26] Radiocarbon dating showed with a probability of more than 95%, the parchment was from between 568 and 645 AD. So the manuscript is at least 1,370 years old. It is the earliest, or among the earliest, in existence. The fragments are written in ink on sheep or goatskin. They are mounted on modern paper to help preserve them. They are going on display at the Barber Institute in Birmingham in October 2015.[26]

Dr. Daniel Brubaker published a video series (by the name "Variant Quran") on the internet, about the changes, corrections and additions made on the oldest Qur'anic texts.[27]

Linguistic featuresEdit

The language used in the Qur'an was not originally pure Arabic. It can be seen that "at the time when the Quran was written", "an Arabic language structure used only in the Petra region" was used in the Qur'an.[28]

Some poetic expressions in The 54. surah of the Quran, begins:

اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ وَإِن يَرَوْا آيَةً يُعْرِضُوا وَيَقُولُوا سِحْرٌ مُّسْتَمِرٌّ

"The Hour (of Judgment) is nigh, and the moon is cleft asunder. But if they see a Sign, they turn away, and say, "This is (but) transient magic." Al-Qamar; 1-2) and narrations that "The Moon split in two and reunited in the sky with a hand sign of Muhammad" are considered among the most outstanding examples of miracles in believers.

The expressions (that are considered to be one of the inimitable literary beauties of the Quran) were the expressions also used in the poems of Imru' al-Qais.[29][30]

Oratory StyleEdit

Ruins of the Great Dam of Marib

Ancient Yemen was a region "fed by monsoon rains" and many dams were built there with the technology of that days. These dams were damaged over time due to aging or damage caused by wars, and when they were not repaired, they had some risks for the people living in the region. As in the Marib (Arim) dam, one of the dams collapsed. And this collapse led to the production of some legends.

The preferred style of expression in the Qur'an for this subject is as follows;"There was, for Saba', a Sign in their home-land : Two gardens on the right hand and on the left . Eat of the provision of your Lord and render thanks to Him. A fair land and an forgiving Lord! But they turned away, so We sent on them the flood of Arim. (34:15-16)

Content and commentsEdit

The ship of Noah, Zubdetü't-Tevarih. According to liberal scholars, Gilgamesh flood myth is borrowed from Babylonians and reinterpreted in the Torah and in the Quran.[31][32][33]

The Quranic content is mainly concerned with Islamic beliefs including the existence of God and the resurrection. Narratives of the early prophets, ethical and legal subjects, historical events of Muhammad's time, charity, and prayer also appear in the Quran.

The "marshy area" (Yam suph)[34] (recorded in the Hebrew Torah as a temporary stopping place) in the Israelites' Exodus stories, turns into the legendary Red Sea crossing.(Qur'an 26:52-68)[35](Aivazovsky)


Whether or not to use "an anthropomorphic language about God" has been the "subject of intense debates" in the history of Jewish, Christian and Islamic thought. Belief in the one and unique God is the basis of Islamic tawhid.

The central theme of the Quran is monotheism. God is depicted as living, eternal, omniscient and omnipotent (see, e.g., Quran [Qur'an 2:20], [Qur'an 2:29], [Qur'an 2:255]). God's omnipotence appears above all in his power to create. He is the creator of everything, of the heavens and the earth and what is between them ([Qur'an 13:16], [Qur'an 2:253], [Qur'an 50:38]). All human beings are equal in their utter dependence upon God, and their well-being depends upon their acknowledging that fact and living accordingly.

In the holy books of the Abrahamic religions, there are anthropomorphic examples "that resemble God to creatures", as well as "expressions that exclude Him from resembling creatures". With a general view, it can be said that there is more anthropomorphism (or personification) than tanzih (Transcendence) in the Qur'an and the Bible.[36]

The prophets and their books (which are stated to be sent by Allah in the Qur'an) attribute themselves to other gods (e.g, Yahweh).[37] For example, Elijah (Ilyas in Arabic) is a Hebrew word meaning "my god is Yahu/Jah".[38]

Angel names such as Gabriel (Jibril) and Mikael in the Qur'an are associated with El (or Il) as in other Abrahamic religions. Allahumma, also mentioned in the Qur'an and traditionally used in Islam to begin dua's, was (possibly) the Arabic pronunciation of the Hebrew word Elohim.[39][40] Elohim was used in Hebrew as an exalting plural (meaning "Gods!"), as in the phrase "Your majesty!".


Jonah and fish miniature. As described in the Book of Jonah, he was thrown from the ship in the Mediterranean sea, swallowed by fish and thrown ashore in Nineveh, Jonah legend is repeated in the Quran.
Eyob, Léon Bonnat (1880);The story of Job was a Torah adaptation of a Sumer legend according to Muazzez İlmiye Çığ[41]
Visit of Queen Belkıs to King Solomon. Edward Poynter, 1890. In the Old Testament, Solomon took seven hundred wives and three hundred concubines, and in his old age he worshiped idols as a heretic.[42] Solomon entered the Qur'an as a prophet-king who ruled over humans, jinn and nature.

According to the Quran, God communicated with man and made his will known through signs and revelations. Prophets, or 'Messengers of God', received revelations and delivered them to humanity. The message has been identical and for all humankind.

The revelation does not come directly from God to the prophets. Angels acting as God's messengers deliver the divine revelation to them.

According to a legend in Urfa, Abraham smashes idols and argues with Nimrod. Nimrod makes a big catapult and makes a fire. They throw Abraham into the fire with this catapult, but Abraham's god turns the fire into water and the 'burning wood pieces' into fish, with an order he gives at that moment.[43][44] The statement about the subject in the Qur'an; “O fire! Be coolness and safe for Abraham!” we said." (21:66-70)

Joseph and His Brothers In the Presence of Pharaoh , James Tissot, according to Ahmed Osman , the story of Yuya (pharaoh) goes to the Torah and the Koran as Yusuf.

The mainstream Biblical scholars holds that the contents of the Book of Jonah are entirely ahistorical.[45][46][47] Although the prophet Jonah allegedly lived in the eighth century BCE,[48] the Book of Jonah was written centuries later during the time of the Achaemenid Empire.[48][49] Many scholars regard the Book of Jonah as an intentional work of parody or satire.[50][51][52][53][54][55] If this is the case, then it was probably admitted into the canon of the Hebrew Bible by sages who misunderstood its satirical nature.[56][54][55]

Iraqi scholar and translator N.J. Dawood interpreted the relationship between Imran and Maryam as a confused transmission of Judeo-Christian theology (confusion of time and persons in Surah al-i Imran).[57]

Ethics / WomenEdit

Lydian king Croesus, legendary with his wealth among the peoples of the Middle East as Karûn, (Louvre museum). In the Qur'an, He was a man from the tribe of Moses (the commentators of the Qur'an also says that he is his uncle's son), spoiled by his wealth. (S. Qasas; 76-82)

There are two opposite tendencies among Muslims regarding women's rights; While one of them is that "Islam places women in the highest rank and gives women all their rights". The other is of those who perceive the Qur'an as a text "that reflects the prejudices of the patriarchal Arab society and confines women to a second-class position".[58] However, the problem is not limited to worldly values ​​such as women's social positions. According to the Qur'an, the fate of women in the hereafter also depends on the fate of their husbands.[59]

Today, the situation of women captured in wars is a critical issue in terms of human rights. According to traditional interpretations of the Qur'an, these women are regarded as captured commodities (War looting). Whether these women are married or not is not taken into account, and like other acquired slave women, right-holders (warriors or buyers of them) can make sexual practices over their bodies without their consent.(Al-Mu’minun;5-6)[60] (see:War crimes)

Justice; (for crimes of killing and wounding): Qisas is a practice understood as a retaliation in the "tribal social order" and carried out on the basis of "social equivalence". Depending on whether the murdered person was, (male, female, slave, free, elite, or common) someone from the killer's tribe (which is socially equivalent to the person killed) was killed. For example, only one slave could be killed for a slave, and a woman could be killed for a woman.[61] The condition of "social equality" in qisas means that; "if a socially inferior person kills someone from the upper class, qisas will be applied", whereas "if someone from the upper class kills someone from the lower class, it cannot be applied".

In this case, compensation payment (Diyya in İslam) can be paid to the family of the murdered person.

There are several qisas verses about these crimes in the Qur'an.

While retaliation is certain in crimes of murder, (according to the verse "O you who believe! Retaliation is prescribed for you in murder; the free man, the slave to the slave, the woman to the woman."(2:178)), the situation is not clear in the crimes of wounding. For such (an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, etc.) punishments, the expression "This is how we wrote to them (the Children of Israel) in the book", is used. (5: 45)


A Coin, depicting Alexander the Great as the conqueror of Egypt with Amun horns. Alexander was considered the son of the god Amun in Ancient Egypt. According to the majority of the Koran commentators, Dhu al-Qarnayn means Alexander.[62][63]
One of the "dozens of caves" that Seven Sleepers are believed to have lived in, Selçuk;The first examples of the legend are found in Mahaprasthanika Parva.[64] Its Christian version was written by Jacob of Serugh (Died: 521).[65] The 18th Surah of the Qur'an, 'tells the story of these people' (who woke up after 309 years of sleep.)

The doctrine of the last day and eschatology (the final fate of the universe) may be reckoned as the second great doctrine of the Quran. It is estimated that approximately one-third of the Quran is eschatological, dealing with the afterlife in the next world and with the day of judgment at the end of time.[66] There is a reference to the afterlife on most pages of the Quran and belief in the afterlife is often referred to in conjunction with belief in God as in the common expression: "Believe in God and the last day."[67]

Muhammad's journey to the Hereafter; The elements of terror and fear "that came together in ancient Israel" (in Ge-Ben Hinnom, the children who were burned and sacrificed to Molek (Jeremiah 32:35)) are displayed in a similar frame (Molek-Malik) in the Jahannam of the Qur'an (43:77). (Miniature, 15. century)

Scientific interestEdit

Earth-centered or above-ground universe. C. Flammarion, Paris 1888 (Woodcut),The Universe is defined as an "Earth-centered (aboveground) universe model" in the Quran.[68]

Cosmology; According to the literal and apparent meanings of the verses of the Qur'an, the world was created flat by Allah.[69] In the Qur'anic narrative, Allah sits on Arsh and governs the universe, (which consists of Heaven and Earth), he created in 6 days. There are creatures such as angels, demons, jinns, devils in this universe. The stars are sometimes used as a throwing stones to drive out demons "who ascend to the sky to steal news".(Surah 67:1-5)

Koranic scientific foreknowledge; asserts that Koran made accurate statements that science verified hundreds of years later, hence, this is a great Miracle. This belief is a common theme in Bucailleism.[70] (see:List_of_pseudosciences)

Text and arrangementEdit

The right page of the Stanford '07 binary manuscript. The upper layer is verses 265-271 of Surah Al-Baqarah. The double layer shows "the additions to the original text of the Qur'an" and "its differences from the present-day Qur'an".

There are 30 parts in the Qur'an, which make 114 "suras" (chapters). Each sura has a different number of verses.

According to the Muslim teachings[source?], 87 of these suras revealed in Mecca, 27 of these suras revealed in Medina. The suras which took place in Medina are Al-Baqara, Al Imran, Al-Anfal, Al-Ahzab, Al-Ma'ida, An-Nisa, Al-Mumtahina, Az-Zalzala, Al-Hadid, Muhammad, Ar-Ra'd, Ar-Rahman, At-Talaq, Al-Bayyina, Al-Hashr, An-Nasr, An-Nur, Al-Hajj, Al-Munafiqun, Al-Mujadila, Al-Hujraat, At-Tahrim, At-Taghabun, Al-Jumua, As-Saff, Al-Fath, At-Tawba, Al-Insan.


The verses of the Quran speak about many different topics. For example, the verses of chapter 80 (Abasa) speak about the evils of ableism, also called able-bodyism or ablecentrism. Verse 2:15 speaks about the evils of being two-faced.[71]

The first and last verseEdit

The first verse revealed is:

(5) اقرَأ بِاسمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذي خَلَقَ (1) خَلَقَ الإِنسانَ مِن عَلَقٍ (2) اقرَأ وَرَبُّكَ الأَكرَمُ (3) الَّذي عَلَّمَ بِالقَلَمِ (4) عَلَّمَ الإِنسانَ ما لَم يَعلَم

Read (commencing) with the Name of Allah, Who has created (everything). He created man from a hanging mass (clinging) like a leech (in the mother’s womb). Read and your Lord is Most Generous, Who taught man (reading and writing) by the pen, Who (besides that) taught man (all that) which he did not know.[72]96:1

The last verse revealed is:

Who believe! fulfill (all) obligations. Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed animals. Dead meat, blood, pig, any food which has been blessed by a (false) god other than Allah; an animal whose death resulted from strangulation, bludgeoning, arrows, falling, or bloodloss; an animal which was partly consumed by a wild animal or an animal which is sacrificed on a stone altar are forbidden. However, if faced with starvation, exceptions are allowed.

Related pagesEdit


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  2. https://www.iusinitinere.it/clash-between-sharia-law-and-human-rights-in-light-of-pace-resolution-2253-23827
  3. http://www.etc-graz.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/insan_haklar__305_n__305__anlamak_kitap_bask__305_ya_ISBNli_____kapakli.pdf
  4. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-09-29. Retrieved 2021-06-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. https://web.archive.org/web/20150403134008/https://www.suleymaniyevakfi.org/kutsanan-gelenek-ve-kuran/kurana-ve-gelenege-gore-dinden-donmenin-cezasi.html
  6. Necati Yeniel, Hüseyin Kayapınar, Sünen-i Ebu Davud Terceme ve şerhi c. 2, s. 112
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  12. Otto Rank (1914). The myth of the birth of the hero: a psychological interpretation of mythology
  13. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=koVaxbWBlr4&feature=share&fbclid=IwAR0G853lRQHyOof4dwTqKd6-vMfT-qvfk1K24gDaKjYneP_CUjw5pEbRpEQ
  14. https://www.zwemercenter.com/is-mecca-really-the-birthplace-of-islam/
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  17. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OD7Q1uo7OoA
  18. Crone, Patricia; Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam, 1987, s. 7
  19. Holland, Tom; In the Shadow of the Sword; Little, Brown; 2012; s. 303: ‘Otherwise, in all the vast corpus of ancient literature, there is not a single reference to Mecca – not one’
  20. Wang, Shutao (Spring 2016). "Religious Roots of Europe Master's Thesis: The Origins of Islam in the Arabian Context" (PDF). Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  21. Meccan Trade And The Rise Of Islam, (Princeton, U.S.A: Princeton University Press, 1987
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  23. Orhan Gökdemir, Din ve Devrim, İstanbul: Destek Yayınları. 2010. s. 64
  24. 24.0 24.1 Gibson, Dan. Qur'ānic geography : a survey and evaluation of the geographical references in the Qur'ān with suggested solutions for various problems and issues. [Surrey, BC.]: ISP = Independant Scholar's Press. ISBN 978-0-9733642-8-6.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Schumm, Walter R. (25 February 2020). "How Accurately Could Early (622-900 C.E.) Muslims Determine the Direction of Prayers (Qibla)?". Religions. p. 102. doi:10.3390/rel11030102. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
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  29. "File:LB-poem.jpg - New World Encyclopedia". www.newworldencyclopedia.org. 16 December 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  30. "Well, Did Muhammad Not Copy Some Verses Of The Qur'an From Imru'l Qais?". www.islamic-awareness.org. Islamic Awareness. 14 June 1999. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
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  64. Pagandan Hristiyanlık ve Müslümanlığa Bir İnanç Merkezi: Ashab-ı Kehf ve Günümüzde Tarsus Ashab-ı Kehf'te Hıdırellez Şenlikleri; Çukurova Üniversitesi Türkoloji Araştırmaları Merkezi; Erişim Tarihi: 25 Aralık 2015
  65. Pieter W. van der Horst; "Pious Long-Sleepers in Greek, Jewish, and Christian Antiquity
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  72. This can also be found in the Quran (chapter 96:1 - 5 Archived 2011-07-14 at the Wayback Machine)

Other websitesEdit