central religious text of Islam

The Qur'an (Arabic: القرآن‎) is the holy book of Islam. The Qur'an is considered by Muslims to be "The Word of Allah (God)". This book is claimed to be different from other religious texts in that it is said to be the literal words of God, through the prophet Muhammad. Some Muslims call it the Final Testament.[source?]

It has been written and read only in Arabic for more than 1,400 years. But, because many Muslims around the world do not understand Arabic, the meaning of the Qur'an is also given in other languages, so that readers can understand better what the Arabic words in the Qur'an mean. These books are like dictionaries to the Qur'an - they are not read as part of the religion of Islam, to replace the Arabic Qur'an. Muslims believe that these translations are not the true Qur'an; only the Arabic copy is the true Qur'an.[1] The Quran is used with the hadith to interpret sharia law.

Parallel stories; The finding of Moses, whose name is used 136 times in the Quran, Alma-Tadema.(Al-Qasas;7-9/Exodus1; 15-22) A similar story was told about the Akkadian king, Sargon the Great.[2]


Muslims believe the Qur'an was first revealed to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel in a cave on the mountain of Hira in Mecca, and then over a period of twenty-three years until his death.

The Qur'an was not written all together in book-form while Muhammad was alive; it was kept by oral communication and brief written records. The prophet did not know how to read nor write, but according to Muslims, the prophet's cousin Ali ibn abi Talib, among others, used to write the texts on something when Muhammad was alive. After prophet Muhammad died, Omar ibn Khattab, one of the khulafa u rashidan, compiled the quran into a single book.

Muhammad's first revelation, Al-Alaq, later placed 96th in the Qur'anic regulations, in current writing style

First revelation and birth place of Muhammad ;

After the death of Muawiyah II, the area approximately affected by Ibn Zubayr.

Contrary to the siyer works based on rumors, some researchers believed Muhammad to be an unreal fictional personality for the following reasons; 1-Mecca was not on the trade routes, 2-In addition to the unsuitability of its land in terms of agriculture, [3] 3-It was not mentioned in history books and maps before the 8th century, [4] 4-It is revealed that it was a new settlement in archaeological researches, 5-Information about the early period of Islam The place names and features in the sources do not match with the geography of Mecca. Based on text and archaeological research, en:Patricia Crone and Michael Cook hypothesized that the "Masjid al-Haram" was not located in Mecca, but in the north-west Arabian Peninsula.[5]

After the death of Muawiyah, the Kaaba was hit by catapults by the soldiers of Yezid, the black stone that was hit was divided into three parts, and the Kaaba was destroyed.[6] According to the Canadian archaeologist and researcher of Islamic history Dan Gibson, this destruction took place not in today's city of Mecca, but about 1200 kilometers north of this Petra.

Gibson has found that the qibla walls of the oldest mosques show Petra.[7] Combining these findings with clues in verse, hadith and sirah sources, Gibson concluded that Muhammad lived in Petra and migrated from here to Medina. According to him, the first qibla of Muslims was not the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, but the Kaaba, which was used as the El-Lât temple in Petra.

This structure was destroyed during the Abdullah bin Zubayr uprising among the Muslims Second Fitna.

Lower Petra;According to the Islamic history and archeology researcher Dan Gibson, this was the place where Mohammed lived his youth and received his first revelations. As the first Muslim mosques and cemeteries show, it was also the first Qibla direction of Muslims.[8][9]

Ibni Zubayr had taken the Karataş along with other sacred items and moved the new temple to the place where today's Mecca is away from Umayyad attacks. The new place, which won the support of Abbasids who were fighting the Umayyads, was fully adopted after a transition period of several centuries, and the direction of the newly built mosques began to be built towards the new Mecca. However, the mosques in North Africa and Andalusia, which were under the influence of Umayyad, continued to oppose the new qibla by turning their direction in a completely different direction, South Africa. [10][11]

Earliest surviving fragmentsEdit

The right page of the Stanford '07 binary manuscript. The upper layer is the verses 265-271 of the surah Bakara. The double layer reveals the additions made on the first text of the Quran and the differences with today's Koran.

Probably the world's oldest fragments of the Koran have been found in the library of the University of Birmingham, in England.[12]

Radiocarbon dating showed with a probability of more than 95%, the parchment was from between 568 and 645 AD. So the manuscript is at least 1,370 years old. It is the earliest, or among the earliest, in existence.

The fragments are written in ink on sheep or goat skin. They are mounted on a modern paper to help preserve them. They are going on display at the Barber Institute in Birmingham in October 2015.[12]

Text and arrangementEdit

Joseph and His Brothers In the Presence of Pharaoh , James Tissot, according to Ahmed Osman , the story of Yuya (pharaoh) goes to the Torah and the Koran as Yusuf. [13]

There are 30 parts in the Qur'an, which make 114 "suras" (chapters). Each sura has a different number of verses.

According to the Muslim teachings[source?], 87 of these suras revealed in Mecca, 27 of these suras revealed in Medina. The suras which took place in Medina are Al-Baqara, Al Imran, Al-Anfal, Al-Ahzab, Al-Ma'ida, An-Nisa, Al-Mumtahina, Az-Zalzala, Al-Hadid, Muhammad, Ar-Ra'd, Ar-Rahman, At-Talaq, Al-Bayyina, Al-Hashr, An-Nasr, An-Nur, Al-Hajj, Al-Munafiqun, Al-Mujadila, Al-Hujraat, At-Tahrim, At-Taghabun, Al-Jumua, As-Saff, Al-Fath, At-Tawba, Al-Insan.

One of the tens of caves that Seven Sleepers are believed to have lived in, Selçuk; According to the legend, the earliest example of which is found in Mahaprasthanika Parva, seven people, together with a dog after them, turn away from the kingdom and the world in order to avoid the blessings of the world.[14]


The verses of the Quran speak about many different topics. For example, the verses of chapter 80 (Abasa) speak about the evils of ableism, also called able-bodyism or ablecentrism. Or verse 2:15 speaks about the evils of being two-faced.[15]

The first and last verseEdit

The first verse revealed is:

(5) اقرَأ بِاسمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذي خَلَقَ (1) خَلَقَ الإِنسانَ مِن عَلَقٍ (2) اقرَأ وَرَبُّكَ الأَكرَمُ (3) الَّذي عَلَّمَ بِالقَلَمِ (4) عَلَّمَ الإِنسانَ ما لَم يَعلَم

Read (commencing) with the Name of Allah, Who has created (everything). He created man from a hanging mass (clinging) like a leech (in the mother’s womb). Read and your Lord is Most Generous, Who taught man (reading and writing) by the pen, Who (besides that) taught man (all that) which he did not know.[16]96:1

The last verse revealed is:

Who believe! fulfil (all) obligations. Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed animals. Dead meat, blood, pig, any food which has been blessed by a (false) god other than Allah; an animal whose death resulted from strangulation, bludgeoning, arrows, falling, or bloodloss; an animal which was partly consumed by a wild animal or an animal which is sacrificed on a stone altar are forbidden. However, if faced with starvation, exceptions are allowed.

Content and commentsEdit

The ship of Noah, Zubdetü't-Tevarih. According to liberal scholars, Gilgamesh flood myth is borrowed from Babilonians and reinterpreted in the Torah and in the Quran.[17][18][19]

The Quranic content is mainly concerned with Islamic beliefs including the existence of God and the resurrection.

Narratives of the early prophets, ethical and legal subjects, historical events of Muhammad's time, charity and prayer also appear in the Quran.

Lydian king, legendary with his wealth among the peoples of the Middle East Karûn, Louvre museum


The central theme of the Quran is monotheism. God is depicted as living, eternal, omniscient and omnipotent (see, e.g., Quran [Qur'an 2:20], [Qur'an 2:29], [Qur'an 2:255]). God's omnipotence appears above all in his power to create. He is the creator of everything, of the heavens and the earth and what is between them (see, e.g., Quran [Qur'an 13:16], [Qur'an 2:253], [Qur'an 50:38], etc.). All human beings are equal in their utter dependence upon God, and their well-being depends upon their acknowledging that fact and living accordingly.[20][21]


A Coin, depicting Alexander the Great as the conqueror of Egypt with Amun horns. Alexander was considered the son of the god Amun in Ancient Egypt. According to the majority of the Koran commentators, Dhu al-Qarnayn means Alexander.[22][23]

The doctrine of the last day and eschatology (the final fate of the universe) may be reckoned as the second great doctrine of the Quran.[20] It is estimated that approximately one-third of the Quran is eschatological, dealing with the afterlife in the next world and with the day of judgment at the end of time.[24] There is a reference to the afterlife on most pages of the Quran and belief in the afterlife is often referred to in conjunction with belief in God as in the common expression: "Believe in God and the last day."[25]


Jonah and fish miniature. As described in the Book of Jonah, he was thrown from the ship in the Mediterranean sea, swallowed by fish and thrown ashore in Nineveh, Yunus legend is repeated in the Quran.
Eyob, Léon Bonnat (1880);The story of Job was a Torah adaptation of a Sumer legend according to Muazzez İlmiye Çığ[26]

According to the Quran, God communicated with man and made his will known through signs and revelations. Prophets, or 'Messengers of God', received revelations and delivered them to humanity. The message has been identical and for all humankind.

The revelation does not come directly from God to the prophets. Angels acting as God's messengers deliver the divine revelation to them.

The mainstream Biblical scholars holds that the contents of the Book of Jonah are entirely ahistorical.[27][28][29] Although the prophet Jonah allegedly lived in the eighth century BCE,[30] the Book of Jonah was written centuries later during the time of the Achaemenid Empire.[30][31] Many scholars regard the Book of Jonah as an intentional work of parody or satire.[32][33][34][35][36][37] If this is the case, then it was probably admitted into the canon of the Hebrew Bible by sages who misunderstood its satirical nature.[38][36][37]

Scientific interestEdit

Earth-centered or above-ground universe. C. Flammarion, Holzschnitt, Paris 1888, It is thought that the Universe is defined as Earth-centered (aboveground) universe model in the Quran.[39]

Koranic scientific foreknowledge; asserts that, Koran made accurate statements that science verified hundreds of years later, hence, this is a great Miracle. This belief is a common theme in Bucailleism.[40]


  1. Qur'an, retrieved on 8 January 2009
  2. Otto Rank (1914). The myth of the birth of the hero: a psychological interpretation of mythology
  3. Crone, Patricia; Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam, 1987, s. 7
  4. Holland, Tom; In the Shadow of the Sword; Little, Brown; 2012; s. 303: ‘Otherwise, in all the vast corpus of ancient literature, there is not a single reference to Mecca – not one’
  5. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/592002
  6. Orhan Gökdemir, Din ve Devrim, İstanbul: Destek Yayınları. 2010. s. 64
  7. https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1444/11/3/102/htm
  8. Dan Gibson: Qur'ānic geography: a survey and evaluation of the geographical references in the qurãn with suggested solutions for various problems and issues. Independent Scholars Press, Surrey (BC) 2011, ISBN 978-0-9733642-8-6
  9. https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1444/11/3/102/htm
  10. Data on Gibson's biography taken from his Web pages, his book Qur'ānic Geography and the Amazon author information to this book: [1] Template:Webarşiv {{|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200521165215/http://nabataea.net/nabhistory.html |tarih=21 Mayıs 2020 }}, [2] Template:Webarşiv {{|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180408141023/http://nabataea.net/authors.html |tarih=8 Nisan 2018 |tarih=8 Nisan 2018 }}, [3] Template:Webarşiv {{|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200126144605/https://independent.academia.edu/DanGibson1 |tarih=26 Ocak 2020 }}, [4] Template:Webarşiv {{|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170531014144/http://nabataea.net/authors.html |tarih=31 Mayıs 2017 }}
  11. Dan Gibson: Qur'ānic Geography (2011)
  12. 12.0 12.1 Coughlan, Sean 2015. Oldest Koran fragments found in Birmingham University. BBC News Education. [5]
  13. Yuya's titles included "Overseer of the Cattle of Amun and Min (Lord of Akhmin) "," Bearer of the Ring of the King of Lower Egypt "," Mouth of the King of Upper Egypt ", and" The Holy Father of the Lord of the Two Lands ", among others. For more see: Osman, A. (1987). "Stranger in the Valley of the Kings: solving the mystery of an ancient Egyptian mummy". San Francisco: Harper & Row. pp.29-30
  14. Pagandan Hristiyanlık ve Müslümanlığa Bir İnanç Merkezi: Ashab-ı Kehf ve Günümüzde Tarsus Ashab-ı Kehf'te Hıdırellez Şenlikleri; Çukurova Üniversitesi Türkoloji Araştırmaları Merkezi; Erişim Tarihi: 25 Aralık 2015
  15. Jamilah, Jamilah. "Interrelatedness Of Legal Verses In Surah Al-baqarah." De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah 1.2 (2009).
  16. This can also be found in the Quran (chapter 96:1 - 5 Archived 2011-07-14 at the Wayback Machine)
  17. http://sssjournal.com/DergiTamDetay.aspx?ID=811&Detay=Ozet
  18. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/557354
  19. https://www.icr.org/article/noah-flood-gilgamesh/
  20. 20.0 20.1 Cite error: The named reference watt was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  21. Cite error: The named reference saeed was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  22. http://turkoloji.cu.edu.tr/mine_mengi_sempozyum/ismail_avci_iskenderi_zulkarneyn_ve_hizir.pdf
  23. Template:Web kaynağı
  24. Buck, Christopher. 2006. "Discovering (final destination)." In The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'an ([2a reimpr.] ed.), edited by A. Rippin, et al. Blackwell. ISBN 978140511752-4. p. 30.
  25. Haleem, Muhammad Abdel (2005). Understanding the Qur'an : themes and style. I.B. Tauris. p. 82. ISBN 9781860646508.
  26. M.İlmiye Çığ. İbrahim Peygamber s. 19.
  27. Ingram 2012, p. 140.
  28. Levine 2000, pp. 71–72.
  29. Kripke 1980, p. 67.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Levine 2000, p. 71.
  31. Ben Zvi 2003, pp. 15–16.
  32. Band 2003, pp. 105–107.
  33. Ben Zvi 2003, pp. 18–19.
  34. Ingram 2012, pp. 140–142.
  35. McKenzie & Graham 1998, p. 113.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Person 1996, p. 155.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Gaines 2003, pp. 22–23.
  38. Band 2003, pp. 106–107.
  39. https://web.archive.org/web/20150712102135/http://wikiislam.net/wiki/The_Geocentric_Qur'an
  40. {{cite journal − | title = Pharmacological Practices of Ancient Egypt − | journal = Proceedings of the 10th Annual History of Medicine − | date = March 2001 − | first1 = Michael D. − | last1 = Parkins − | first2 = J. − | last2 = Szekrenyes − | url = http://helios.e-e-e.gr/medicine/files/History_of_medicine_days.pdf#page=17 − | access-date = 7 November 2010 − | url-status = dead − | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110721080348/http://helios.e-e-e.gr/medicine/files/History_of_medicine_days.pdf − | archive-date = 21 July 2011 − }}

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