Republic of Croatia (1990–1991)

the process which led to the independence of modern day croatia

The Republic of Croatia was a republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1990 and 1991. The creation of a republic based on democracy occurred in 1990 when elections were held. Franjo Tuđman was elected President of Croatia that year. He promised independence if reforms were not introduced. While generally heading towards independence, the government attempted negotiations with the Serbian government one last time: the idea was to create a confederal Yugoslavia where Croatia and other republics would be autonomous and powers would be decentralized. This was not accepted.

Republic of Croatia
Republika Hrvatska
Location of Croatia
StatusA federal unit of
SFR Yugoslavia
Common languagesSerbo-Croatian
• 1990–1991
Franjo Tuđman
Prime Minister 
• 1990–1991
Stjepan Mesić
• 1990–1991
Josip Manolić
• Referendum of independence
June 5 1991
CurrencyYugoslav dinar
ISO 3166 codeHR
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Socialist Republic of Croatia
Republic of Serbian Krajina

Crisis change

From 1990 to 1991, Croatia faced political crisis within Yugoslavia as Serb-populated areas attempted to form an enclave called Serbian Krajina which intended to separate from Croatia if Croatia itself attempted to separate. The Serb leadership in Krajina refused to recognize the government of the Republic of Croatia as having sovereignty over them. The crisis began with the Log Revolution as Croatian Serbs cut down trees which they used to block roads. This hampered Croatian tourism and caused alarm in the province of Dalmatia as Croatia was hosting the 1990 European Athletics Championships in Split.

Disestablishment change

Croatia's status as a constituent republic ended in 1991. In a referendum on independence, a majority of Croatians wanted independence from Yugoslavia (93% of the total number of votes). Serb-controlled areas of Croatia became part of the unrecognized Republic of Serbian Krajina, which would not be under Croatian control until 1995. Its main part was liberated by Croatian forces in 1995 (Operation Storm); a part remained in eastern Slavonia under United Nations (UN) administration until its peaceful reincorporation into Croatia in 1998.

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