The Sakas were a population of Iranian nomadic tribesmen lived in the plains of Eurasia from Eastern Europe to China, from the Old Persian Period to the Middle Persian Period. Then Turkic language speakers took their place.
Approximate extent of East Iranian languages the 1st century BCE is shown in orange.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Related ethnic groups|
The ancient Greeks called the Sakas the Scythians.
- English form of Old Iranian Sakā, nominative plural masculine case; ancient Greek Σάκαι, Sakai; Sanskrit Śaka
- Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages: the definitive reference to more than 400 languages, Columbia University Press, 2004, pg 278
- Sarah Iles Johnston, Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide, Harvard University Press, 2004. pg 197
- Edward A Allworth,Central Asia: A Historical Overview,Duke University Press, 1994. pp 86.
Books and ArticlesEdit
- Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. 1st Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).
- Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation.
- Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. 
- Lebedynsky, Iaroslav. (2006). Les Saces: Les <<Scythes>> d'Asie, VIIIe av. J.-C.-IVe siècle apr. J.-C. Editions Errance, Paris. ISBN 2-87772-337-2 (in French).
- Scythians/Sacae: Article by Jona Lendering
- Article by Kivisild et al. on genetic heritage of early Indian settlers
- genetic heritage of central Asia
- genetic journeys and ancestors
- Indian, Japanese and Chinese Emperors