esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism

Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र "weave" meaning continuity[1]), tantricism or tantrism is the name for a number of traditions from Indian religions. These traditions are usually esoteric in their nature. Tantra exists in Hindu, Bönpo, Buddhist, and Jain forms. Tantra in its various forms has existed in South Asia, China, Japan, Tibet, Korea, Cambodia, Burma, Indonesia and Mongolia.[2]

Tantra is derived from 2 words - "Tanoti" (Liberation of energy) and "Trayati" (Expansion of consciousness).


  1. Norbu, p. 49
  2. White (2000), p. 7


  • Avalon, Arthur (1918). Sakti and Sakta. Ganesh and Co.
  • Avalon, Arthur (1972). Tantra of the great liberation - Mahanirvana Tantra. New York: Dover publications. ISBN 0-486-20150-3.
  • Bhattacharyya, N.N. (1999). History of the Tantric Religion. New Delhi: Manohar. ISBN 81-7304-025-7. Second Revised Edition
  • Bühnemann, Gudrun (1988). The Worship of Mahāgaṇapati According to the Nityotsava. Institut für Indologie. ISBN 81-86218-12-2. First Indian Edition, Kant Publications, 2003.
  • The Roots of Tantra. State University of New York Press. 2002. ISBN 0-7914-5306-5.
  • Nikhilananda, Swami (1982). Hinduism: Its meaning for the Liberation of the Spirit (2nd ed.). Sri Ramakrishna Math.
  • Norbu, Chögyal Namkhai (1999). The Crystal and The Way of Light: Sutra, Tantra and Dzogchen. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1559391359.
  • Saraswati, Swami Satyananda (2000). Sure Ways to Self Realization. Yoga Publications Trust. ISBN 8185787417.
  • Urban, Hugh (2003). Tantra: Sex, Secrecy, Politics, and Power in the Study of Religions. University of California Press. ISBN 0520236564.
  • Wangyal Rinpoche, Tenzin; Dahlby, Mark (1998). The Tibetan Yogas of Dream and Sleep. N.Y.: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1559391014.
  • White, David Gordon, ed. (2000). Tantra in Practice. Princeton University PressPress. ISBN 0-691-05779-6.
  • Winternitz, Maurice (1972). History of Indian Literature. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. Second revised reprint edition. Two volumes. First published 1927 by the University of Calcutta.