Uralic languages

language family prevalent in northern Eurasia

The Uralic languages are a language family. They were originally spoken in Eastern Europe and Asia but originated somewhere in eastern Siberia near Lake Baikal.

Eastern and Northern Europe, North Asia, Siberia
Linguistic classification:One of the world's major language families (possibly Uralo-Siberian family)
ISO 639-5:urj


There are two modern main kinds: the Samoyedic languages and the Finno-Ugric languages.



The proto-Uralic languages and the early Uralic people originated somewhere in eastern Siberia or possibly Northeast Asia. They were closely related to other Siberian and East Asian but also Inuit people. They migrated into central Siberia and then about 3,000 years ago started to migrate to the Baltic region in northeastern Europe. They assimilated many Paleo-European tribes.[1][2] Genetic and anthropologic studies show that the early Uralic people were similar to various Siberian and East Asian people (Mongoloids).[3][4]

External relations

The distribution of the Uralo-Siberian family.

Several linguists and geneticists suggest that the Uralic languages are related to various Siberian languages and possibly also some languages of northern Native Americans. A proposed family is named Uralo-Siberian. It includes Uralic, Yukaghir, Eskimo–Aleut (Inuit), possibly Nivkh and Chukotko-Kamchatkan.[5]

List of Uralic languages



  1. Janhunen, Juha (2009). ""Proto-Uralic—what, where and when?" (PDF).
  2. Saag, Lehti; Laneman, Margot; Varul, Liivi; Malve, Martin; Valk, Heiki; Razzak, Maria A.; Shirobokov, Ivan G.; Khartanovich, Valeri I.; Mikhaylova, Elena R. (2019-05-20). "The Arrival of Siberian Ancestry Connecting the Eastern Baltic to Uralic Speakers Further East". Current Biology : CB. 29 (10): 1701–1711.e16. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.04.026. ISSN 0960-9822. PMC 6544527. PMID 31080083.
  3. Tambets, Kristiina; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Hudjashov, Georgi; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Rootsi, Siiri; Honkola, Terhi; Vesakoski, Outi; Atkinson, Quentin; Skoglund, Pontus (2018-09-21). "Genes reveal traces of common recent demographic history for most of the Uralic-speaking populations". Genome Biology. 19 (1): 139. doi:10.1186/s13059-018-1522-1. ISSN 1474-760X. PMC 6151024. PMID 30241495.
  4. Fóthi, Erzsébet; Gonzalez, Angéla; Fehér, Tibor; Gugora, Ariana; Fóthi, Ábel; Biró, Orsolya; Keyser, Christine (2020-01-14). "Genetic analysis of male Hungarian Conquerors: European and Asian paternal lineages of the conquering Hungarian tribes". Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 12 (1): 31. doi:10.1007/s12520-019-00996-0. ISSN 1866-9565. S2CID 210168662.
  5. "Indigenous Languages of Siberia: An Overview". Languages Of The World. 2014-10-09. Retrieved 2020-01-22.