Variovorax

genus of bacteria

Variovorax is a gram-negative bacterial genus from the family Comamonadaceae.[2][3] Its designated species is Variovorax paradoxus which arose from the species Alcaligenes paradoxus being grouped under the Variovorax genus.[4] The cell size of Variovorax is 0.5–0.6 μm × 1.2–3.0 μm[5] and the optimal growth temperature is 30 degrees Celsius.[6] The bacteria utilise various organic compounds as a carbon source, including fructose, galactose, and glucose, in order to promote plant growth.[7]

Variovorax
Scientific classification
Domain:
Phylum:
Class:
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Genus:
Variovorax

Willems et al. 1991[1]
Type species
Variovorax paradoxus[1]
Species

V. boronicumulans[1]
V. defluvii[1]
V. dokdonensis[1]
V. ginsengisoli[1]
V. gossypii[1]
V. guangxiensis[1]
V. humicola[1]
V. paradoxus[1]
V. soli[1]

Surface activities in Variovorax paradoxus

Characteristics

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Variovorax cells function alone or in pairs, and use a flagellum to move around.[7]They contain carotenoid pigments which leads to a yellow appearance of the colonies. The bacteria are tolerate to a wide variety of metals including cobalt, copper, and nickel, which allows for the bacteria to survive in many environments.[8]

Habitat and occurrence

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Bacteria of the Variovorax genus can often be found in damp, dark conditions of soil and water.[9] The bacteria can also be found in a variety of diverse habitats, including the rhizosphere,[10] which is a section of soil in close proximity to the root microbiome. Other habitats that have been recognised include glacial settings, soils contaminated with chemicals and plastics, and riverbed sediments.[11]

Environmental function

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Variovorax species have many diverse roles in their environmental surroundings, a noticeable one being promoting plant growth. There is a variety of mechanisms by which the bacteria can accomplish this, including the preventing of plant pathogens being produced, reducing the amount of stress a plant undergoes, and also increasing the number of nutrients that are available.[12] Other roles can also be witnessed, including the cycling of various elements across a range of environments including arsenic.[13] It is thought to oxidise As (III) to As (V) via a detoxification mechanism.[14]

Another potential use which has been discovered for the Variovorax genus is its role in bioremediation studies.[15] Variovorax paradoxus has been found to be a potential use in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with linuron, which could be depolluted through biopurification via bioaugmentation.[7]

References

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  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Parte, A.C. "Variovorax". LPSN.
  2. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (1 January 2003). "Nomenclature Abstract for Variovorax". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.1832 (inactive 17 Apr 2024).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of April 2024 (link)
  3. Willems, Anne; Mergaert, Joris; Swings, Jean (14 September 2015). "Variovorax". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 1–9. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.gbm00952. ISBN 978-1-118-96060-8.
  4. (Davis et al. 1969) Willems et al. 1991. (2022-08-18). "Name Abstract for Variovorax paradoxus". Names for Life, LLC. doi:10.1601/nm.1833 (inactive 17 Apr 2024).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of April 2024 (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  5. Willems, A.; De Ley, J.; Gillis, M.; Kersters, K. (1991). "NOTES: Comamonadaceae, a New Family Encompassing the Acidovorans rRNA Complex, Including Variovorax paradoxus gen. nov., comb. nov., for Alcaligenes paradoxus (Davis 1969)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 41 (3): 445–450. doi:10.1099/00207713-41-3-445. ISSN 1466-5034.
  6. DAVIS, DIANA H.; DOUDOROFF, MICHAEL; STANIER, ROGER Y.; MANDEL, MANLEY (1969). "Proposal to reject the genus Hydrogenomonas: Taxonomic implications". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 19 (4): 375–390. doi:10.1099/00207713-19-4-375. ISSN 1466-5034.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Satola, Barbara; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander (2013-01-01). "Metabolic characteristics of the species Variovorax paradoxus". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 97 (2): 541–560. doi:10.1007/s00253-012-4585-z. ISSN 1432-0614. PMID 23192768.
  8. Belimov, A. A.; Hontzeas, N.; Safronova, V. I.; Demchinskaya, S. V.; Piluzza, G.; Bullitta, S.; Glick, B. R. (2005-02-01). "Cadmium-tolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with the roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern.)". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 37 (2): 241–250. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.07.033. ISSN 0038-0717.
  9. Lee, J.; Lee, C. S.; Hugunin, K. M.; Maute, C. J.; Dysko, R. C. (2010-09-01). "Bacteria from drinking water supply and their fate in gastrointestinal tracts of germ-free mice: A phylogenetic comparison study". Water Research. Microbial ecology of drinking water and waste water treatment processes. 44 (17): 5050–5058. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2010.07.027. ISSN 0043-1354. PMID 20705313.
  10. Lee, Shin Ae; Kim, Hyeon Su; Kim, Yiseul; Sang, Mee Kyung; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon (2018). "Complete genome sequence of Variovorax sp. PMC12, a plant growth-promoting bacterium conferring multiple stress resistance in plants". Korean Journal of Microbiology. 54 (4): 471–473. doi:10.7845/kjm.2018.8075. ISSN 0440-2413.
  11. Ghimire, Nisha; Kim, Byeollee; Lee, Chang-Muk; Oh, Tae-Jin (2022-05-18). "Comparative genome analysis among Variovorax species and genome guided aromatic compound degradation analysis emphasizing 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation in Variovorax sp. PAMC26660". BMC Genomics. 23 (1): 375. doi:10.1186/s12864-022-08589-3. ISSN 1471-2164. PMC 9115942. PMID 35585492.
  12. Han, Jong-In; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Won; Orwin, Paul M.; Kim, Jina; LaRoe, Sarah L.; Kim, Tae-gyu; O'Neil, Jennifer; Leadbetter, Jared R.; Lee, Sang Yup; Hur, Cheol-Goo (2011-03-01). "Complete Genome Sequence of the Metabolically Versatile Plant Growth-Promoting Endophyte Variovorax paradoxus S110". Journal of Bacteriology. 193 (5): 1183–1190. doi:10.1128/JB.00925-10. ISSN 0021-9193. PMC 3067606. PMID 21183664.
  13. Bahar, Md Mezbaul; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi (2013-11-15). "Kinetics of arsenite oxidation by Variovorax sp. MM-1 isolated from a soil and identification of arsenite oxidase gene". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 262: 997–1003. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.11.064. PMID 23290483.
  14. Macur, Richard E.; Jackson, Colin R.; Botero, Lina M.; Mcdermott, Timothy R.; Inskeep, William P. (2004-01-01). "Bacterial Populations Associated with the Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic in an Unsaturated Soil". Environmental Science & Technology. 38 (1): 104–111. doi:10.1021/es034455a. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 14740724.
  15. Han, Jong-In; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Won; Orwin, Paul M.; Kim, Jina; LaRoe, Sarah L.; Kim, Tae-gyu; O'Neil, Jennifer; Leadbetter, Jared R.; Lee, Sang Yup; Hur, Cheol-Goo (2011-02-09). "Complete Genome Sequence of the Metabolically Versatile Plant Growth-Promoting Endophyte Variovorax paradoxus S110". Journal of Bacteriology. 193 (5): 1183–1190. doi:10.1128/JB.00925-10. ISSN 0021-9193. PMC 3067606. PMID 21183664.