Vijayanagara Empire

Hindu kingdom in Southern India (14th-17th century)

Vijayanagara empire (1336–1646 CE) was an Indian Hindu empire. From 1336 and afterwards, it was in the Deccan, in the peninsula and in southern India. It was founded by Harihara (Hakka) and his brother Bukka Raya. The empire is named after its capital city Vijayanagara, now Hampi in modern Karnataka, India. It began in 1336 and ended in 1660, though in its last century it began losing its power. Stories of the empire's creation and history are not certain, though tales of the empire's wealth and power were described by European travellers such as the Portuguese travelers Domingo Paes and Nuniz, and the Venetian traveler Niccolò Da Conti.

Vijayanagara Empire
Map of the Vijayanagara Empire at its height under the Sangama dynasty.[1]
Map of the Vijayanagara Empire at its height under the Sangama dynasty.[1]
CapitalVijayanagara (1336–1565)

Penukonda (1565–1592) Chandragiri (1592–1604)

Vellore (1604–1646)[2]
Common languagesKannada
• 1336–1356
Harihara I
• 1642–1646
Sriranga III
• Established
• Earliest records
• Disestablished
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Hoysala Empire
Kakatiya dynasty
Yadava dynasty
Kampili kingdom
Madurai Sultanate
Pandya dynasty
Musunuri Nayakas
Reddi Kingdom
Delhi Sultanate
Kingdom of Mysore
Nayakas of Keladi
Thanjavur Nayak kingdom
Madurai Nayak dynasty
Nayakas of Chitradurga
Adil Shahi dynasty
Qutb Shahi dynasty
Nayaks of Gingee
Today part ofIndia

Dynasties and kings


This list is based on the book by Robert Sewell (A Forgotten Empire).

Sangama Dynasty

  • Harihara I (Deva Raya) 1336-1343/56(some accounts claim that there was brief period of other ruler probably a 3rd brother)
  • Bukka I 1343/56-1379
  • Harihara II 1379-1399
  • Bukka II 1399-1406
  • Deva Raya I 1406-1412
  • Vira Vijaya 1412-1419
  • Deva Raya II 1419-1444
  • (unknown) 1444-1449
  • Mallikarjuna 1452-1465 (Dates uncertain)
  • Rajasekhara 1468-1469 (Dates uncertain)
  • Virupaksha I 1470-1471 (Dates uncertain)
  • Praudha Deva Raya 1476-? (Dates uncertain)
  • Rajasekhara 1479-1480 (Dates uncertain)
  • Virupaksha II 1483-1484 (Dates uncertain)
  • Rajasekhara 1486-1487 (Dates uncertain)

Saluva Dynasty

  • Narasimha 1490-?
  • Narasa (Vira Narasimha) ?-1509
  • Krishna Deva 1509-1529
  • Achyuta 1529-1542
  • Sadasiva (puppet ruler in the hands of Ram Raya) 1542-1567

Tuluva dynasty

  • Rama (ruled in practice) 1542-1565
  • Tirumala (ruled in practice) 1565-1567
  • Tirumala (crowned ruler) 1567-1575
  • Ranga II 1575-1586
  • Venkata I 1586-1614

Aravidu (dates are not known), includes these rulers. There is certainly more than one ruler under each name.

  • Ranga
  • Venkata
  • Rama


  1. Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 147, map XIV.l. ISBN 0226742210.
  2. Howes, Jennifer (1998). The Courts of Pre-colonial South India: Material Culture and Kingship. Psychology Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-07-0071-585-5.
  3. Bridges, Elizabeth J. (2016). "Vijayanagara Empire". In Dalziel, N.; MacKenzie, J. M. (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Empire. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1002/9781118455074.wbeoe424. ISBN 978-1118455074.

Other websites