opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light

A window is an opening in a wall or roof of a building, in a car etc., to let air and light in. It is usually filled with a sheet of glass. There can be many different shapes and sizes, including rectangular, square, circular, or irregular shapes. Some windows include coloured glass. Windows are usually transparent so that people can see through them.

A window of a house in England
An old man looking through the window of a tram in Egypt

Before glass was used in windows, people in Asia used paper to fill the hole in the wall. The paper would let light in.

Types of windowEdit

These are different types of windows. They are:


A cross-window is a window that has a mullion and a transom, that makes a cross.[1]

Fixed windowEdit

A fixed window is a window that cannot be opened. It is made to allow light to enter.[2] The windows in churches are usually fixed.

Single-hung sashEdit

A single-hung sash window is a window that has one horizontal sash at the bottom that can move up and down.[1]

Double-hung sashEdit

A double-hung sash is a window that has two horizontal sash at the top and bottom that can move up and down.

Casement windowEdit

A casement window

A casement window is a window with a sash that has a hinge that swings in or out like a door. Casement windows are usually held open using a casement stay.


A skylight

A skylight is a window built into a roof. This type of window allows natural daylight and moonlight to enter.

Roof lanternEdit

The lantern over the dome of the Florence Baptistery

A roof lantern is a glass structure that has lots of different colors. It looks like a small building. It is built on a roof for day or moon light.[3]

Stained glass windowEdit

Sunlight shining through stained glass

A stained glass window is a window that is made up of pieces of colored glass. The colored glass can be transparent, translucent or opaque. It usually shows people or places. Usually the glass in these windows is separated by lead rods. Stained glass windows are very common in churches.[4]

How they are madeEdit

Different materials are used when making a window. For the frame of the window wood, polyvinyl chloride, composite, aluminium, steel, fiberglass are used.

Many windows have movable window coverings such as blinds or curtains. They keep out light, give extra insulation. It also ensure privacy. Windows allow natural light to enter. But too much can have bad effects such as glare and heat gain.[5]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Curl, James Stevens, 1937- (2006). A dictionary of architecture and landscape architecture. Curl, James Stevens, 1937- (2nd ed ed.). Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280630-7. OCLC 64585874. |edition= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. Germer, Jerry, 1938-. Kitchen & bath residential construction and systems. National Kitchen and Bath Association (U.S.) (Second edition ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey. ISBN 978-1-118-71104-0. OCLC 830669202. |edition= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. Sarviel, Ed. (1993). Construction estimating reference data. Sloan, Scott, 1946-. Carlsbad, CA: Craftsman Book Co. ISBN 0-934041-84-9. OCLC 27684161.
  4. "Stained glass window". Retrieved 2020-09-07.
  5. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Architecture. Design Evaluation Project. (1976). Designing for the elderly, windows. The Project. OCLC 4674708.