Woodlands have an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodlands grade into shrubland in drier conditions or in early stages of plant succession. Higher densities and areas of trees, with largely closed canopy, and nearly continuous shade and are often called forests.
Woodland in British forestry means any smaller area covered in trees, however dense. Forest in the British Isles means extensive wooded areas, regardless of density. Royal forests may not be wooded at all. The term ancient woodland is used in British conservation to mean any wooded land that has existed for a very long time (equivalent to the American term old growth forest).
- Smith S. & Mark S. 2006. Alice Gray, Dorothy Buell, and Naomi Svihla: preservationists of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal. 1. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-1-2006/78-journals/vol-1-2006/117-alice-gray-dorothy-buell-and-naomi-svihla-preservationists-of-ogden-dunes
- Smith S. & Mark S. 2009. The historical roots of the Nature Conservancy in the Northwest Indiana/Chicagoland region: from science to preservation. The South Shore Journal. 3. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-3-2009/83-journals/vol-3-2009/75-the-historical-roots-of-the-nature-conservancy-in-the-northwest-indianachicagoland-region-from-science-to-preservation
- Smith S. & Mark S. 2007. The cultural impact of a museum in a small community: the hour glass of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal. 2. http://www.southshorejournal.org/index.php/issues/volume-2-2007/82-journals/vol-2-2007/104-the-cultural-impact-of-a-museum-in-a-small-community-the-hour-glass-in-ogden-dunes