1601 was a common year.
|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1570s 1580s 1590s – 1600s – 1610s 1620s 1630s|
|Years:||1598 1599 1600 – 1601 – 1602 1603 1604|
- February 8 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Queen Elizabeth I of England – his revolt is quickly crushed
- February 25 – Robert Devereux's head is chopped off as a punishment
- Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China
- A bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer
- Dutch troops chase Portuguese from Málaga
- Start of Siege of Kinsale, in Ireland – the siege started in the Autumn of 1601, and ended in the Battle of Kinsale on 3 January 1602 according to the Gregorian Calendar used today. This calendar was already being used by the Irish and Spanish forces in the battle, but for the English side, who were still using the old Julian Calendar, the date of the battle was 24 December 1601.