The Altai Republic (/ˈæltaɪ/; Altai: Алтай Республика, Altay Respublika; Kazakh: Алтай Республикасы, Russian: Респу́блика Алта́й, romanized: Respublika Altay, pronounced [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə ɐlˈtaj]), also known as Gorno-Altai Republic, is a republic of Russia. It is in southern Siberia and is a part of the Siberian Federal District. It has an area of 92,903 square kilometers (35,870 sq mi). It has a population of 210,924 people. It is the least-populous republic of Russia and least-populous federal subject in the Siberian Federal District. Gorno-Altaysk is the capital and the largest town of the republic.
|Other official transcription(s)|
|• Altai||Алтай Республика|
|• Kazakh||Алтай Республикасы / Altai Respublikasy|
|Anthem: National Anthem of the Altai Republic|
|Coordinates: 50°55′N 86°55′E / 50.917°N 86.917°ECoordinates: 50°55′N 86°55′E / 50.917°N 86.917°E|
|Economic region||West Siberian|
|• Type||State Assembly—El Kurultai|
|• Head||Oleg Khorokhordin|
|• Total||92,903 km2 (35,870 sq mi)|
|• Density||2.27/km2 (5.9/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+6 (MSK+3)|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-AL|
The Altai Republic is one of Russia's ethnic republics. It mainly represents the indigenous Altai people. The Altai are a Turkic ethnic group that make up 37% of the republic's population, while ethnic Russians form a majority at 54%, and with minority populations of Kazakhs, other Central Asian ethnicities, and Germans. The official languages of the Altai Republic are Russian and Altai. Kazakh is official in areas where it is spoken more.
The Xiongnu Empire (209 BC – AD 93) owned the territory of the modern Altai Republic. The area was part of the First Turkic Khaganate, the Uyghur Empire, and the Yeniseian Kyrgyzs. This time was the time when Turkic cultures and languages became most common.
The southern part of the Altai Republic came under the Naiman Khanate. The territory of the modern Altai Republic has been ruled by the Mongolic Xianbei state (93–234), Rouran Khaganate (330–555), Mongol Empire (1206–1368), Golden Horde (1240–1502), Zunghar Khanate (1634–1758) and Qing Empire (1757–1864).
The entire Altan Nuur Uriankhai region was annexed into the Russian Empire in 1864–1867 by the Treaty of Tarbagatai. During the Russian Civil War, the Confederated Republic of Altai (Karakorum-Altai Region) was created in 1918. It claimed to be the first step to rebuilding Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire. But it never became a competing force in the Russian Civil War. It stayed neutral from 1918 until January 1920, when it was taken back by Russia. A second Altai Republic was formed in 1921 and lasted until 1922 when they were annexed by the Bolsheviks.
On June 1, 1922, the Oyrot Autonomous Oblast (Ойро́тская автоно́мная о́бласть) was created in Altai Krai. This gave the Altai people more autonomy again. The original name for this region was Bazla. On January 7, 1948, it was renamed Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast (Го́рно-Алта́йская автоно́мная о́бласть). In 1991 it was turned into the Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR). In 1992 it was renamed to the Altai Republic.
The Altai Republic is in the Altai Mountains. It is at the junction of the Siberian taiga, the Kazakh steppes, and the Mongolian semi-deserts. Forests cover about 25% of the republic. The highest point in the Altai Republic is Belukha Mountain, which stands at 4,506 m (14,783 ft) tall.
The Altai Republic borders Kemerovo Oblast to the north, Khakassia to the northeast, Tuva to the east, Altai Krai to the west/northwest, Mongolia (Bayan-Ölgii Province) to the southeast, China (Altay Prefecture, Xinjiang) to the south, and Kazakhstan (East Kazakhstan Region) to the south/southwest.
The republic has a temperate continental climate. It has short and mild summers (June–August) and long, cold, and often quite frosty winters (November–March).
In general, the republic's climate of the southeastern areas, such as the (Ulagansky and Kosh-Agachsky Districts), is harsher than the climate of the less elevated northern areas.
- Average annual temperature: +1 °C to −6.7 °C.
- January temperature range: -9.2 °C to −31 °C.
- July temperature range: +11 °C to +19 °C.
- Average annual precipitation: 100–1000 mm.
The Altai Republic is administratively divided into ten districts and Gorno-Altaysk Urban Okrug. The districts are further divided into ninety-two rural settlements.
206,168 (2010 Census); 202,947 (2002 Census); 191,649 (1989 Census).
According to the 2021 Census, ethnic Russians make up 53.7% of the republic's population. The indigenous Altai people make up 37.0%. Other groups include Kazakhs (6.4%), and several smaller groups.
|1926 Census||1939 Census||1959 Census||1970 Census||1979 Census||1989 Census||2002 Census||2010 Census||2021 Census|
- including 3,414 Telengits, 1,384 Kumandins and 344 Teleuts
- including 2,368 Telengits, 1,533 Tubalars, 931 Kumandins, 830 Chelkans, 141 Shors and 32 Teleuts
- including 3,648 Telengits, 1,891 Tubalars, 1,062 Kumandins, 1,113 Chelkans and 87 Shors
- including 2,587 Telengits, 3,424 Tubalars, 1,037 Kumandins, 1,170 Chelkans and 91 Shors
- Alexander Berdnikov (born April 8, 1953), Chairman of the Government of the Altai Republic, and the head of the republic from January 20, 2006.
- Grigory Gurkin (January 24, 1870 – October 11, 1937), landscape painter.
- Mikhail Lapshin (September 1, 1934 – June 17, 2006), President of the Altai Republic from January 19, 2002, to January 19, 2006.
- Sergey Mikayelyan (born April 27, 1992), cross-country skier.
- Viktor Shvaiko (b. 1965), painter.
- Semyon Zubakin (born May 4, 1952), Head of the Altai Republic in Russia from January 13, 1998, to January 19, 2002.
- ↑ Official website of the Altai Republic Archived 2011-05-14 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Constitution, Article 8
- ↑ Official website of the Altai Republic. Biography of Alexander Vasilyevich Berdnikov Archived 2011-07-17 at the Wayback Machine
- ↑ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Национальный состав населения". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
- ↑ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- ↑ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- ↑ Constitution, Article 13.
- ↑ Skutsch, Carl, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 1-57958-468-3.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Znamenski, Andrei (2005). "Power of Myth: Popular ethnonationalism and Nationality Building in Mountain Altai, 1904–1922" (PDF). Acta Slavica Iaponica. 22: 44–47. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-08-02.
- ↑ Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- ↑ Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved 9 Feb 2012.
- ↑ Demoscope Weekly (1989). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved 9 Feb 2012.
- 7 июня 1997 г. «Конституция Республики Алтай (Основной Закон)», в ред. Конституционного закона №5-КРЗ от 27 ноября 2007 г. (June 7, 1997 Constitution of the Altai Republic (Basic Law), as amended by the Constitutional Law #5-KRZ of November 27, 2007. ).