Republics of Russia

type of equal subjects of the Russian Federation

In Russia, republics are a type of federal subject. They were originally created as nation states for non-Russian ethnic groups, but have since lost most of their autonomy.

Republics of Russia. Colors indicate federal districts. Republics are listed west to east:
LocationRussian Federation
Number21 (without Crimea)
22 (with Crimea)
PopulationsSmallest: Altai, 206,195
Largest: Bashkortostan, 4,072,102
AreasSmallest: Ingushetia, 3,123 km2 (1,206 sq mi)
Largest: Sakha, 3,083,523 km2 (1,190,555 sq mi)
GovernmentRepublican government
SubdivisionsDistricts, cities and towns of republic significance

Status of Southeast Ukraine


On 18 March 2014, Russia annexed the Autonomous Republic of Crimea of Ukraine after an unrecognized referendum.[2]The peninsula became the Republic of Crimea, the 22nd republic of Russia. However, Ukraine and most of the international community do not recognize Crimea's annexation.[3] United Nations General Assembly declared the vote to be illegitimate.[4]

On 24 February 2022 Russia invaded Ukraine and took large areas of southern and eastern Ukraine. As early as March leaders in the unrecognized Luhansk People's Republic[5] and Donetsk People's Republic[6] both said their wish to join Russia, originally once Russia captured all their claimed territory. However, after quick Ukrainian gains in the east in September, Russia and the unrecognized republics rushed a series of referendums on annexation to Russia. The referendum results claimed a large majority supported annexation.[7] On 30 September 2022, Putin formally announced the annexation of the two republics.[8] However, the referendums were recognized internationally as a sham while the European Union and G7 said they were illegal.[9] United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the annexations as a violation of the UN Charter.[10]

Kherson Oblast, another region annexed by Russia, was originally thought to be upgrading itself to a "people's republic", according to United States intelligence.[11] However, it never happened, and by the time of the referendums in late September 2022, Kherson's status in Russia stayed unmentioned. When Kherson was annexed, along with neighbouring Zaporizhzhia Oblast, they became oblasts instead of republics.


Name Map Domestic common and formal names Capital Titular Nationality Population (2010)[12]
Republic of Adygea
Russian: Республика Адыгея (Respublika Adygeya)

Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик (Adıgə Respublik)
Russian: Майкоп (Maykop)

Adyghe: Мыекъуапэ (Mıequapə)
7,792 km2 (3,009 sq mi)
Altai Republic
Russian: Республика Алтай (Respublika Altay)

Altay: Алтай Республика (Altay Respublika)

Kazakh: Алтай – Алтай Республикасы (Altai — Altai Respublikasy)

Russian: Горно-Алтайск (Gorno-Altaysk)

Altay: Улалу (Ulalu)

Kazakh: Горно-Алтайск (Gorno-Altaisk)
92,903 km2 (35,870 sq mi)
Republic of Bashkortostan
Russian: Республика Башкортостан (Respublika Bashkortostan)

Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы (Başqortostan Respublikahı)
Russian: Уфа (Ufa)

Bashkir: Өфө (Öfö)
142,947 km2 (55,192 sq mi)
Republic of Buryatia
Russian: Республика Бурятия (Respublika Buryatiya)

Buryat: Буряад Улас (Buryaad Ulas)
Russian: Улан-Удэ (Ulan-Ude)

Buryat: Улаан Үдэ (Ulaan Üde)
351,334 km2 (135,651 sq mi)
Chechen Republic
Russian: Чеченская Республика (Chechenskaya Respublika)

Chechen: Нохчийн Республика (Noxçiyn Respublika)
Russian: Грозный (Grozny)

Chechen: Соьлжа-ГӀала (Sölƶa-Ġala)
16,165 km2 (6,241 sq mi)
Chuvash Republic
Russian: Чувашская Республика (Chuvashskaya Respublika)

Chuvash: Чӑваш Республики (Čăvaš Respubliki)
Russian: Чебоксары (Cheboksary)

Chuvash: Шупашкар (Šupaškar)
18,343 km2 (7,082 sq mi)
Republic of Crimea[a]
Russian: Республика Крым (Krym — Respublika Krym)

Ukrainian: Республіка Крим (Respublika Krym)

Crimean Tatar: Къырым Джумхуриети (Qırım Cumhuriyeti)
Russian: Симферополь (Simferopol)

Ukrainian: Сiмферополь (Simferopol)

Crimean Tatar: Акъмесджит (Aqmescit)
26,081 km2 (10,070 sq mi)
Republic of Dagestan
Russian: Дагестан — Республика Дагестан (Dagestan — Respublika Dagestan)
Thirteen other official names
  • Aghul: Республика Дагъустан (Respublika Daġustan)
    Avar: Дагъистаналъул Жумгьурият (Daġistanałul Jumhuriyat)
    Azerbaijani: Дағыстан Республикасы (Dağıstan Respublikası)
    Chechen: Дегӏестан Республика (Deġestan Respublika)
    Dargwa: Дагъистан Республика (Daġistan Respublika)
    Kumyk: Дагъыстан Жумгьурият (Dağıstan Cumhuriyat)
    Lak: Дагъусттаннал Республика (Daġusttannal Respublika)
    Lezgian: Республика Дагъустан (Respublika Daġustan)
    Nogai: Дагыстан Республикасы (Dağıstan Respublikası)
    Rutul: Республика Дагъустан (Respublika Daġustan)
    Tabassaran: Дагъустан Республика (Daġustan Respublika)
    Tat: Республикей Догъисту (Respublikei Doġistu)
    Tsakhur: Республика Дагъустан (Respublika Daġustan)
Russian: Махачкала (Makhachkala)
Thirteen indigenous nationalities
50,270 km2 (19,409 sq mi)
Donetsk People's Republic[c]
Russian: Донецкая Народная Республика (Donetskaya Narodnaya Respublika) Russian: Донецк (Donetsk)
26,517 km2 (10,238 sq mi)[e]
Republic of Ingushetia
Russian: Республика Ингушетия (Respublika Ingushetiya)

Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк (Ġalġay Moxk)
Russian: Магас (Magas)

Ingush: Магас (Magas)
3,123 km2 (1,206 sq mi)
Kabardino-Balkar Republic
Russian: Кабардино-Балкарская Республика (Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika)

Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ (Qəbərdey-Batlqər Respublikə)

Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика (Qabartı-Malqar Respublika)
Russian: Нальчик (Nalchik)

Kabardian: Налщӏэч (Nalş’əç)

Karachay-Balkar: Нальчик (Nalchik)
12,470 km2 (4,815 sq mi)
Republic of Kalmykia
Russian: Республика Калмыкия (Respublika Kalmykiya)

Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч (Haľmg Tañğç)
Russian: Элиста (Elista)

Kalmyk: Элст (Elst)
74,731 km2 (28,854 sq mi)
Karachay-Cherkess Republic
Russian: Карачаево-Черкесская Республика (Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika)
Four other official names
  • Abaza: Къарча-Черкес Республика (Qarça-Çerkes Respublika)

    Kabardian: Къэрэшей-Шэрджэс Республикэ (Qərəṩey-Ṩərcəs Respublikə)

    Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкес Республика (Qaraçay-Çerkes Respublika)

    Nogai: Карашай-Шеркеш Республика(Karaşay-Şerkeş Respublika)
Russian: Черкесск (Čerkessk)
Four other official names
  • Abaza: Черкес къала (Черкесск)

    Kabardian: Шэрджэс къалэ (Ṩərcəs qalə)

    Karachay-Balkar: Черкесск (Çerkessk)

    Nogai: Шеркеш шахар (Şerkeş şahar)
14,277 km2 (5,512 sq mi)
Republic of Karelia
Russian: Республика Карелия (Respublika Kareliya)

Karelian: Karjalan tazavaldu[f]
Russian: Петрозаводск (Petrozavodsk)

Karelian: Petroskoi
180,520 km2 (69,699 sq mi)
Republic of Khakassia
Russian: Республика Хакасия (Respublika Khakasiya)

Khakas: Хакас Республиказы (Khakas Respublikazy)
Russian: Абакан (Abakan)

Khakas: Абахан (Abakhan)
61,569 km2 (23,772 sq mi)
Komi Republic
Russian: Республика Коми (Respublika Komi)

Komi: Коми Республика (Komi Respublika)
Russian: Сыктывкар (Syktyvkar)

Komi: Сыктывкар (Syktyvkar)
416,774 km2 (160,917 sq mi)
Luhansk People’s Republic[c]
Russian: Луганская Народная Республика (Luganskaya Narodnaya Respublika) Russian: Луганск (Lugansk)
26,684 km2 (10,303 sq mi)[e]
Mari El Republic
Russian: Республика Марий Эл (Respublika Mariy El)

Hill Mari: Мары Эл Республик (Mary El Republik)

Meadow Mari: Марий Эл Республик (Mariy El Republik)
Russian: Йошкар-Ола (Yoshkar-Ola)

Hill Mari: Йошкар-Ола (Yoshkar-Ola)

Meadow Mari: Йошкар-Ола (Yoshkar-Ola)
23,375 km2 (9,025 sq mi)
Republic of Mordovia
Russian: Республика Мордовия (Respublika Mordoviya)

Erzya: Мордовия Республикась (Mordovija Respublikas)

Moksha: Мордовия Pеспубликась (Mordovija Respublikas)
Russian: Саранск (Saransk)

Erzya: Саран ош (Saran osh)

Moksha: Саранош (Saranosh)
26,128 km2 (10,088 sq mi)
Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
Russian: Республика Северная Осетия–Алания (Respublika Severnaya Osetiya–Alaniya)

Ossetian: Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон–Алани (Respublikæ Cægat Iryston–Alani)
Russian: Владикавказ (Vladikavkaz)

Ossetian: Дзӕуджыхъӕу (Dzæudžyqæu)
7,987 km2 (3,084 sq mi)
Republic of Sakha
Russian: Республика Саха (Respublika Sakha)

Yakut: Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ (Sakha Öröspüübülükete)
Russian: Якутск (Yakutsk)

Yakut: Дьокуускай (Dokuuskay)
3,083,523 km2 (1,190,555 sq mi)
Republic of Tatarstan
Russian: Республика Татарстан (Respublika Tatarstan)

Tatar: Татарстан Республикасы (Tatarstan Respublikası)
Russian: Казань (Kazan)

Tatar: Казан (Kazan)
67,847 km2 (26,196 sq mi)
Tuva Republic
Russian: Республика Тува (Respublika Tuva)

Tuvan: Тыва Республика (Tyva Respublika)
Russian: Кызыл (Kyzyl)

Tuvan: Кызыл (Kyzyl)
168,604 km2 (65,098 sq mi)
Udmurt Republic
Russian: Удмуртская Республика (Udmurtskaya Respublika)

Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун (Udmurt Elkun)
Russian: Ижевск (Izhevsk)

Udmurt: Ижкар (Ižkar)
42,061 km2 (16,240 sq mi)


  1. Heaney 2018, p. 180.
  2. Gutterman, Steve; Polityuk, Pavel (2014-03-18). "Putin signs Crimea treaty as Ukraine serviceman dies in attack". Reuters. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
  3. Luhn, Alec (2014-03-18). "Red Square rally hails Vladimir Putin after Crimea accession". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
  4. Charbonneau, Louis; Donath, Mirjam (2014-03-27). "U.N. General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid". Reuters. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
  5. "Ukrainian rebel region Luhansk may vote to join Russia". Reuters. 27 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  6. Humphries, Conor (29 March 2022). Trevelyan, Mark (ed.). "Russia-backed Donetsk Republic may consider joining Russia - leader". Reuters.
  7. Picheta, Rob (27 September 2022). "Russian forces have staged illegal 'referendums' in Ukraine. What comes next?". CNN. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  8. "Putin says Russia has 'four new regions' as he announces annexation of Ukrainian territory". Reuters. 30 September 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  9. "West condemns Russia's 'illegal' annexation of Ukraine provinces". Al Jazeera. 30 September 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  10. "Ukraine: UN Secretary-General condemns Russia annexation plan". United Nations. 29 September 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  11. Mcilkenny, Stephen (3 May 2022). "Kherson Ukraine: Russia planning to annex new areas of Ukraine including Donetsk and Luhansk regions". The Scotsman. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  12. "2010 All-Russian Population Census" (PDF). All-Russian Population Census (in Russian). 2011-12-22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-05. Retrieved 2019-05-12.
  13. Goble, Paul (2015-11-03). "Why are Only Some Non-Russian Republics Led by Members of Their Titular Nationalities?". The Interpreter. Archived from the original on 2020-10-31. Retrieved 2019-05-13.
  14. Jung, Hakyung (2012). "Language in a Borderland: On the Official Status of Karelian Language". Slavic Studies: 1 and 13 – via Academia.
  1. Cite error: The named reference crimea was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  2. The republic was not formed with a titular nationality in mind.[13]
  3. 3.0 3.1 Territory annexed by Russia from Ukraine in 2022. Internationally recognized as part of Ukraine.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Pre-war population based on Ukrainian estimates.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Republic only has partial control of its territory.
  6. The Karelian language has no official status in the republic but is nevertheless recognized as a "regional language" alongside Finnish and Veps.[14]