Federal subjects of Russia

official constitutional top-level political division of Russia

The subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: Субъекты Российской Федерации Subekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) are the main administrative divisions in Russia. Since 18 March 2014, Russia is made up of 85 federal subjects.[1] They are grouped into eight Federal Districts.

The federal subjects are divided into oblasts, republics, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities and autonomous oblasts. Republics are generally independent, each having its own constitution and legislature. They are meant to be home to a certain ethnic minority. The republics can also set their own official language.[2]

TypesEdit

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

Legend Description
     46 oblasts The most common type of federal subject with a governor and local government.
     22 republics Nominally autonomous,[3][4] each has its own constitution and legislature; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.
     9 krais The same as an oblast, but with a different name. The name "krai" is old.
     4 autonomous okrugs With a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
     3 federal cities Major cities that have their own region.
     1 autonomous oblast The only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.

ListEdit

Code Name Capital/Administrative centre[a] Flag Coat
of arms
Type Federal district Economic region Area
(km2)[5]
Population
[6]
Year
established
01 Adygea, Republic of Maykop     republic Southern North Caucasus 7,600 447,109 1922
02 Bashkortostan, Republic of Ufa     republic Volga Ural 143,600 4,104,336 1919
03 Buryatia, Republic of Ulan-Ude     republic Far Eastern East Siberian 351,300 981,238 1923
04 Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk     republic Siberian West Siberian 92,600 202,947 1922
05 Dagestan, Republic of Makhachkala     republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 50,300 2,576,531 1921
06 Ingushetia, Republic of Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
    republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 4,000 467,294 1992
07 Kabardino-Balkar Republic Nalchik     republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 12,500 901,494 1936
08 Kalmykia, Republic of Elista     republic Southern Volga 76,100 292,410 1957
09 Karachay-Cherkess Republic Cherkessk     republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 14,100 439,470 1957
10 Karelia, Republic of Petrozavodsk     republic Northwestern Northern 172,400 716,281 1956
11 Komi Republic Syktyvkar     republic Northwestern Northern 415,900 1,018,674 1921
12 Mari El Republic Yoshkar-Ola     republic Volga Volga-Vyatka 23,200 727,979 1920
13 Mordovia, Republic of Saransk     republic Volga Volga-Vyatka 26,200 888,766 1930
14 Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Yakutsk     republic Far Eastern Far Eastern 3,103,200 949,280 1922
15 North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of Vladikavkaz     republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 8,000 710,275 1924
16 Tatarstan, Republic of Kazan     republic Volga Volga 68,000 3,779,265 1920
17 Tuva Republic Kyzyl     republic Siberian East Siberian 170,500 305,510 1944
18 Udmurt Republic Izhevsk     republic Volga Ural 42,100 1,570,316 1920
19 Khakassia, Republic of Abakan     republic Siberian East Siberian 61,900 546,072 1930
20 Chechen Republic Grozny     republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 15,300 1,103,686 1991
21 Chuvash Republic Cheboksary     republic Volga Volga-Vyatka 18,300 1,313,754 1920
22 Altai Krai Barnaul     krai Siberian West Siberian 169,100 2,607,426 1937
23 Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar     krai Southern North Caucasus 76,000 5,125,221 1937
24 Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk     krai Siberian East Siberian 2,339,700 2,966,042 1934
25 Primorsky Krai Vladivostok     krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 165,900 2,071,210 1938
26 Stavropol Krai Stavropol     krai North Caucasian North Caucasus 66,500 2,735,139 1934
27 Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk     krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 788,600 1,436,570 1938
28 Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk     oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 363,700 902,844 1932
29 Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk     oblast Northwestern Northern 587,400 1,336,539 1937
30 Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan     oblast Southern Volga 44,100 1,005,276 1943
31 Belgorod Oblast Belgorod     oblast Central Central Black Earth 27,100 1,511,620 1954
32 Bryansk Oblast Bryansk     oblast Central Central 34,900 1,378,941 1944
33 Vladimir Oblast Vladimir     oblast Central Central 29,000 1,523,990 1944
34 Volgograd Oblast Volgograd     oblast Southern Volga 113,900 2,699,223 1937
35 Vologda Oblast Vologda
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
    oblast Northwestern Northern 145,700 1,269,568 1937
36 Voronezh Oblast Voronezh     oblast Central Central Black Earth 52,400 2,378,803 1934
37 Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo     oblast Central Central 21,800 1,148,329 1936
38 Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk     oblast Siberian East Siberian 767,900 2,581,705 1937
39 Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad     oblast Northwestern Kaliningrad 15,100 955,281 1946
40 Kaluga Oblast Kaluga     oblast Central Central 29,900 1,041,641 1944
41 Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky     krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 472,300 358,801 2007
42 Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo     oblast Siberian West Siberian 95,500 2,899,142 1943
43 Kirov Oblast Kirov     oblast Volga Volga-Vyatka 120,800 1,503,529 1934
44 Kostroma Oblast Kostroma     oblast Central Central 60,100 736,641 1944
45 Kurgan Oblast Kurgan     oblast Ural Ural 71,000 1,019,532 1943
46 Kursk Oblast Kursk     oblast Central Central Black Earth 29,800 1,235,091 1934
47 Leningrad Oblast Largest city: Gatchina[b]     oblast Northwestern Northwestern 84,500 1,669,205 1927
48 Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk     oblast Central Central Black Earth 24,100 1,213,499 1954
49 Magadan Oblast Magadan     oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 461,400 182,726 1953
50 Moscow Oblast Largest city: Balashikha[c]     oblast Central Central 44,300[7] 6,618,538 1929
51 Murmansk Oblast Murmansk     oblast Northwestern Northern 144,900 892,534 1938
52 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod     oblast Volga Volga-Vyatka 76,900 3,524,028 1936
53 Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod     oblast Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 694,355 1944
54 Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk     oblast Siberian West Siberian 178,200 2,692,251 1937
55 Omsk Oblast Omsk     oblast Siberian West Siberian 139,700 2,079,220 1934
56 Orenburg Oblast Orenburg     oblast Volga Ural 124,000 2,179,551 1934
57 Oryol Oblast Oryol     oblast Central Central 24,700 860,262 1937
58 Penza Oblast Penza     oblast Volga Volga 43,200 1,452,941 1939
59 Perm Krai Perm     krai Volga Ural 160,600 2,819,421 2005
60 Pskov Oblast Pskov     oblast Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 760,810 1944
61 Rostov Oblast Rostov-on-Don     oblast Southern North Caucasus 100,800 4,404,013 1937
62 Ryazan Oblast Ryazan     oblast Central Central 39,600 1,227,910 1937
63 Samara Oblast Samara     oblast Volga Volga 53,600 3,239,737 1928
64 Saratov Oblast Saratov     oblast Volga Volga 100,200 2,668,310 1936
65 Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk     oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 87,100 546,695 1947
66 Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg     oblast Ural Ural 194,800 4,486,214 1935
67 Smolensk Oblast Smolensk     oblast Central Central 49,800 1,049,574 1937
68 Tambov Oblast Tambov     oblast Central Central Black Earth 34,300 1,178,443 1937
69 Tver Oblast Tver     oblast Central Central 84,100 1,471,459 1935
70 Tomsk Oblast Tomsk     oblast Siberian West Siberian 316,900 1,046,039 1944
71 Tula Oblast Tula     oblast Central Central 25,700 1,675,758 1937
72 Tyumen Oblast Tyumen     oblast Ural West Siberian 143,520 3,264,841 1944
73 Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk     oblast Volga Volga 37,300 1,382,811 1943
74 Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk     oblast Ural Ural 87,900 3,603,339 1934
75 Zabaykalsky Krai Chita     krai Far Eastern East Siberian 431,500 1,155,346 2008
76 Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl     oblast Central Central 36,400 1,367,398 1936
77 Moscow     federal city Central Central 2,511 10,382,754
78 Saint Petersburg     federal city Northwestern Northwestern 1,439 4,662,547
79 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan     autonomous oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 36,000 190,915 1934
83 Nenets Autonomous Okrug Naryan-Mar     autonomous okrug Northwestern Northern 176,700 41,546 1929
86 Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
    autonomous okrug Ural West Siberian 523,100 1,432,817 1930
87 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr     autonomous okrug Far Eastern Far Eastern 737,700 53,824 1930
89 Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
(Largest city: Noyabrsk)
    autonomous okrug Ural West Siberian 750,300 507,006 1930
91 Republic of Crimea[d] Simferopol     republic Southern[8][9] North Caucasus 26,964[10] 1,966,801[11] 2014
92 Sevastopol[d]     federal city Southern[8][9] North Caucasus 864[12] 379,200[12] 2014

a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative center.

b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of St. Petersburg. However, St. Petersburg is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.

c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.

d. ^ Not recognized internationally as a part of Russia.

e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Russian Presidential Executive Office. Retrieved 2013-04-28.
  2. Article 68 of the Constitution of Russia
  3. Publications, E. (2012). The Territories of the Russian Federation 2012. Taylor & Francis. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-135-09584-0. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  4. Saunders, R.A. (2019). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Historical Dictionaries of Europe. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-5381-2048-4. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  5. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
  6. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
  7. "1.1. ОСНОВНЫЕ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ в 2014 г." [MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS 2014]. Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators – 2015 (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Crimea becomes part of vast Southern federal district of Russia". Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  10. "Autonomous Republic of Crimea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
  11. "Population as of February 1, 2014. Average annual populations January 2014". ukrstat.gov.ua. Retrieved 2015-10-18.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "A General data of the region". Sevastopol City State Administration. Archived from the original on February 11, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014.