Novgorod Oblast

administrative division in Russia

Novgorod Oblast (Russian: Новгоро́дская о́бласть, Novgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia. Specifically, it is an oblast. Its administrative center (capital city) is the city of Veliky Novgorod. Some of the oldest Russian cities, including Veliky Novgorod and Staraya Russa, are in the oblast. The historic monuments of Veliky Novgorod and surroundings have been made a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Population: 634,111 (2010 Census).[7]

Novgorod Oblast
Новгородская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 58°26′N 32°23′E / 58.433°N 32.383°E / 58.433; 32.383Coordinates: 58°26′N 32°23′E / 58.433°N 32.383°E / 58.433; 32.383
Political status
CountryRussia
Federal districtNorthwestern[1]
Economic regionNorthwestern[2]
Administrative centerVeliky Novgorod
Government (as of March 2014)
 • Governor[4]Andrey Nikitin[3]
 • LegislatureOblast Duma[5]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[6]
 • Total55,300 km2 (21,400 sq mi)
Area rank48th
Population (2010 Census)[7]
 • Total634,111
 • Rank69th
 • Density[8]11.47/km2 (29.7/sq mi)
 • Urban70.6%
 • Rural29.4%
Population (2013 est.)
 • Total625,855[9]
Time zone(s)MSK (UTC+04:00)
ISO 3166-2RU-NGR
License plates53
Official languagesRussian[10]
[www.novreg.ru Official website]

GeographyEdit

Novgorod Oblast borders Leningrad Oblast in the north and in the northwest, Vologda Oblast in the east, Tver Oblast in the southeast and in the south, and Pskov Oblast in the southwest.

Lake IlmenEdit

In the center of the oblast is Lake Ilmen. Lake Ilmen is one of the largest lakes in Central Russia. The major tributaries of Lake Ilmen are the Msta, the Lovat, the Pola, the Polist, and the Shelon. The only outflow of the lake is the Volkhov, a major tributary of Lake Ladoga.

Protected areasEdit

Two areas in Novgorod Oblast have been made protected natural areas of federal significance.[11] These are Valdaysky National Park in the southeast of the oblast and Rdeysky Nature Reserve in the southwest of the oblast, which protects the Polist-Lovat Swamp System and is next to Polistovsky Nature Reserve in Pskov Oblast.

HistoryEdit

 
Battle between Novgorod and Suzdal in 1170, the icon from 1460

Novgorod is one of the oldest centers of Russian civilization. It was on the historical trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. This route followed the Volkhov upstream to Lake Ilmen and then followed the course of the Lovat before reaching the Dnieper. In 1136, Novgorod became the center of the Novgorod Republic. The Novgorod Republic included the major part of what is today northwestern Russia. Novgorod was part of the Hanseatic League. It was one of the few areas of Rus not affected by the Mongol invasions. It was also a major cultural center.

Towards the end of the 15th century, Novgorod was defeated by the army of Ivan III, the prince of Moscow. It was included into the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1560, Ivan the Terrible, fearing treason, sent his army to sack the city. This event was known as the Massacre of Novgorod. It had terrible consequences for the city, which lost the majority of its population and never recovered. Additionally, Novgorod was looted by the Swedish army in the beginning of the 17th century, during the Time of Troubles.

19th centuryEdit

Before the 19th century, the areas around Novgorod were much better developed than the areas which are currently in the center and the east of the oblast. In 1851, Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway opened. It was the first long-distance railway in Russia. It went around Novgorod as it was built on a straight line between Moscow and Saint Petersburg. The railway construction lead to the development of the nearby areas and eventually to creation of new towns such as Malaya Vishera, Okulovka, and Chudovo.

20th centuryEdit

On August 1, 1927 the governorates of the Russian Empire were removed. The territory of present-day Novgorod Oblast merged into newly created Leningrad Oblast.[12] German troops occupied the area between autumn of 1941 and spring of 1944 during World War II. After its liberation on 5 July 1944, Novgorod Oblast was created.

In 1999, the city of Novgorod was renamed Veliky Novgorod.

Administrative divisionsEdit

The oblast is administratively divided into three cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction (Veliky Novgorod, Borovichi, and Staraya Russa) and twenty-one districts. Another seven towns (Chudovo, Kholm, Malaya Vishera, Okulovka, Pestovo, Soltsy, and Valday) have the status of the towns of district significance.[13]

DemographicsEdit

Population: 634,111 (2010 Census),[14] down from 694,355 recorded by the 2002 Census,[15] and further down from about 753,054 recorded in the 1989 Census.[16]

Novgorod Oblast has the lowest population of any oblast in the European part of Russia. One of the reasons for the low population is that the area took large losses during World War II. The population is 70.6% urban.[14]

Ethnic groupsEdit

In the 2010 Census, these were the largest ethnicities in Novgorod Oblast: 560,280 Russians (95.1%); 7,025 Ukrainians (1.2%); 3,598 Romani (0.6%); 3,438 Belarusians (0.6%); 15,054 others.[14]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. Official website of Novgorod Oblast. Andrey Sergeyevich Nikitin, Acting Governor of Novgorod Oblast Archived 2018-03-27 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  4. Charter of Novgorod Oblast, Article 42
  5. Charter of Novgorod Oblast, Article 16
  6. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  8. The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  9. Novgorod Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность мужчин и женщин (PDF) (in Russian). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
  10. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. ООПТ Северо-Западного округа (in Russian). Особо охраняемые природные территории России. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  12. Снытко, О.В.; et al. (2009). С.Д. Трифонов; Т.Б. Чуйкова; Л.В. Федина; А.Э. Дубоносова (eds.). Административно-территориальное деление Новгородской губернии и области 1727-1995 гг. Справочник (PDF) (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. p. 85. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  13. Template:OKATOReference
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  15. Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved 9 Feb 2012.
  16. Demoscope Weekly (1989). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved 9 Feb 2012.
  17. "On the Trail of the Onion". Russia Experience. 2011-02-11. Archived from the original on 2018-08-03. Retrieved 2019-03-18.

Other websitesEdit