Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.

1968 murder of Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr., a prominent American leader of the civil rights movement and Nobel Peace Prize winner, was shot and killed at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at the age of 39. King was rushed to St. Joseph's Hospital, where he died at 7:05 that evening. He was a prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement who was known for his use of nonviolence and civil disobedience.

Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
LocationMemphis, Tennessee, U.S.
DateApril 4, 1968
6:01 p.m. (Central Time)
TargetMartin Luther King, Jr.
Attack type
Assassination by sniper shooting
WeaponsRemington 760 Gamemaster
  • James Earl Ray according to a criminal case
  • Loyd Jowers and "others, including unspecified governmental agencies" according to a later civil case

James Earl Ray, a prisoner who ran away from the Missouri State Penitentiary, was arrested and charged with King's murder. He was sentenced to 99 years in the Tennessee State Penitentiary.[1] He died in prison at the age of 70 due to liver failure.[2]

The King family and others believe that a government conspiracy killed King, as Loyd Jowers said in 1993. They believe that Ray was a scapegoat. In 1999, the King family filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Jowers for $10,000,000. During the trial, both the King family and Jowers gave evidence accusing the government of a conspiracy. The government agencies that were accused could not defend themselves or respond, because they were not named as defendants. Based on the evidence, the jury concluded that Jowers and "others were part of a conspiracy to kill King."[3][4]

Shooting and death change

King had clearly made enemies in his rise to fame. The Ku Klux Klan did what they could to hurt his reputation, especially in the South. Even the FBI kept a close eye on him.[5]

On the evening of April 4, 1968, King was standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee. He was planning to lead a protest march to support garbage workers that were on strike. At 6:01 p.m., King was shot. The bullet entered through his right cheek, and travelled down his neck. It cut the major vein and arteries in his neck before stopping in his shoulder. Unconscious, he fell violently backwards onto the balcony.

King was rushed to St. Joseph's Hospital. His heart had stopped. Doctors cut open his chest and massaged his heart to try to keep blood and oxygen pumping through his body. However, King never became conscious again. He died at 7:05 p.m. According to Taylor Branch, King's autopsy showed that though he was only 39 years old, he had the heart of a 60-year-old man.

Afterward change

Photo from after the riots in Washington, D.C., following King's murder

Civil disorder, including riots, happened after King's murder in at least 110 U.S. cities. Washington, Chicago, and Baltimore had the most damage.

On June 10, 1968, James Earl Ray was arrested in London at Heathrow Airport. Ray was extradited to the United States and charged with killing King. On March 10, 1969, Ray told the court he was guilty, and was sentenced to 99 years in the Tennessee state penitentiary.[6] Ray later tried many times to take away his guilty plea and be tried by a jury, but he was unsuccessful.

Meeting of the House Select Committee on Assassinations

The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was created in 1976 to look into the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr., and the shooting of Governor George Wallace. The Committee investigated until 1978, and put out a final report in 1979. About the King assassination, the Committee decided:[7]

  • James Earl Ray did kill King, with one rifle shot
  • "There is a likelihood" that this was the result of a conspiracy (probably between Ray and his brothers)
  • The U.S. government was not part of this conspiracy

In 1999, Coretta Scott King, King's widow, and the rest of King's family won their wrongful death lawsuit against Loyd Jowers and "other unknown co-conspirators" (other people who were part of the conspiracy). Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King's assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found Jowers liable for King's murder. They also found that governmental agencies were part of the assassination plot.[8]

James Earl Ray died in prison on April 23, 1998, at the age of 70.[9]

In 2000, the Department of Justice completed the investigation about Jowers' claims. They did not find evidence to support the accusations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommends no more investigation unless some reliable new facts are presented.[10]

The Lorraine Motel is now a civil rights museum.[11]

References change

  1. Pepper, William F. (2008). An Act of State: The Execution of Martin Luther King. Verso. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84467-285-1.
  2. Pepper, William F. (2008). An Act of State: The Execution of Martin Luther King. Verso. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-84467-285-1.
  3. name=Douglass2000
  4. YELLIN, EMILY. "Memphis Jury Sees Conspiracy in Martin Luther King's Killing"], The New York Times, 9 Dec. 1999. Web. 8 June 2013.<>.
  5. Christensen, Jen (December 29, 2008). "FBI tracked King's every move -". CNN. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
  6. Pepper, William F. (2008). An Act of State: The Execution of Martin Luther King. Verso. p. 8. ISBN 9781844672851.
  7. Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives (29 March 1979). Stokes, Louis Chairman, House Select Committee on Assassinations.
  8. "Trial Transcript Volume XIV". verdict. The King Center. 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-03-17. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
  9. Pepper, William F. (2008). An Act of State: The Execution of Martin Luther King. Verso. p. 97. ISBN 9781844672851.
  10. "USDOJ Investigation of Recent Allegations Regarding the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr". Overview. USDOJ. June 2000. Retrieved 2006-09-18.
  11. "National Civil Rights Museum". Retrieved December 26, 2011.

Other websites change