Battle of Buxar
|Battle of Buxar|
The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, as a prisoner of the
British East India Company
|British East India Company|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Hector Munro of Novar|
|Casualties and losses|
10,000 killed or wounded|
|1,847 killed or wounded|
The combined Mughal forces numbered about 40,000 men, and Monroe's forces numbered about 10,000 men, of whom 7,000 were regular British Army men seconded to the East India Company. Reports of the battle say that lack of co-ordination between the various Mughal forces was the main reason for their defeat.
The fate of the three defeated Mughal leaders varied. Shah Allam was forced to pay a fine of five million rupees. After negotiation, the Treaty of Allahabad was signed. All his pre-war possessions were returned except for the districts of Karra and Allahabad. He became a pensioner, with a monthly pension of 450,000 rupees. The Company later restored Allahabad to him. The Company got revenue authority (Diwani rights) for almost 100,000 acres of land in the modern states of West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh, as well as in the neighbouring areas of Bengal.In return mughal emperor was given 26 lakh rupees.The Company's main aim was not to rule India, but to to increase their revenue resources and expand trade throughout the country.Taxes were collected for them by a Company-appointed deputy-nawab.nawab was to pay an indemnity of rupees 50 lakh
Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula was restored to Oudh, with a subsidiary force and a guarantee of defence. Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal, was ruined by the defeat. He had been the prime mover in the war, but afterwards he was deposed by the Company and rejected by Shuja-ud-Daula.
The arrangements made the British East India Company the virtual ruler of Bengal, since it already possessed decisive military power. All that was left to the Nawab was the control of the judicial administration. But he was later forced to hand this over to the Company in 1793. Thus the company's control was virtually complete.
In spite of all this the East India Company was again on the verge of bankruptcy, which stirred the British to make a fresh effort at reform. On the one hand Warren Hastings was appointed with a mandate for reform; on the other an appeal was made to the British state for a loan. The result was the beginnings of state control of the Company, and Warren Hastings was appointed Governor-General of Bengal from 1772 to 1785.
- Sen, Sailendra Nath (2009). History Of The Freedom Movement In India (1857-1947. New Age International. p. 2. ISBN 978-81-224-2576-5.
- Parshotam Mehra 1985. A dictionary of modern history (1707–1947). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-561552-4, 1985 ed., Oxford University Press