Mughal Empire

dynastic empire once extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent

The Mughal Empire, (Hindi: मुग़ल साम्राज्य, Persian: دولتِ مغل) was an Sunni Islamic empire in Asia that existed from 1526 to 1858. The Mughal rule over India was an empire because it stretched over a large area. It once ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, and parts of what is now India, Afghanistan and modern Pakistan and Bangladesh between 1526 and 1707.[1] It was the world's largest economy, at 25% of the world's GDP. [2] It famously signalled the proto-industrialization and had a lavish architecture.

The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent ca. 1707

The Mughal emperors were originally Turk-Mongols.[3] Babur of the Timurid dynasty founded the Mughal Empire and the Mughal dynasty in 1526 and ruled until 1530. He was followed by Humayun (1530-1540) and (1555-1556), Akbar (1556-1605), Jahangir (1605-1627), Shah Jahan (1628-1658), and the Islamic Aurangzeb (1658-1707) and several other minor rulers until Bahadur Shah Zafar II(1837-1857). After the death of Aurangzeb, the rule through sharia ended and the Mughal Empire became weak. It continued until 1857-1858. By then, India came under the British Raj.

The Mughal Empire was established by able Muslim rulers who came from what is now Uzbekistan. The Mughal rule in India saw the country being united as one single unit and being administered under a single powerful ruler. During the Mughal period, art and architecture flourished and many beautiful monuments were constructed. The rulers were skillful warriors and also admirers of art.

The Mughals left a permanent mark on Indian society, culture, art and architecture. Their monuments, artifacts and literature show a period of great wealth and culture. Paintings in miniature style teach us about the clothing and lifestyle of the Mughal people.

The Mughal people is an ethnic group living in the Indian subcontinent that is a descendant of the Mongol and Turkic conquerors who came to North India from the 14th century. Mongol, Turkic, and local Indo-Iranian peoples took part in the formation of the Mughal people.

After 1858, when the Mughal Empire was taken over by the British Empire, some of the upper-class Indian Muslims went to exile to the Ottoman Empire. Their descendants today are named Muğallar (Mughals) in Turkish. They have become part of Turkish society and speak Turkish as their mother tongue.


  1. Fisher, Michael (30 May 2019). A Short History of the Mughal Empire. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9781350127531.
  2. Jeffrey G. Williamson, David Clingingsmith (August 2005). "India's Deindustrialization in the 18th and 19th Centuries" (PDF). Harvard University. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  3. Richards, John F. (1995), The Mughal Empire, Cambridge University Press, p. 6, ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2

Mustafa Ali Turi The Mughal emperor were Turk Mughal