Aurangzeb

Evil Mughal emperor from 1658 to 1707

Muhi al-Din Muhammad (Arabic: محی الدین محمد, romanized: Muḥī al-Dīn Muḥammad), better known as Aurangzeb (Arabic: اورنگ‌زیب) was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire.[1][2] He ruled over the majority of South Asia and imposed Islamic Sharia law. His reign lasted for 49 years, from 1658 until he died in 1707. During this time, Aurangzeb greatly expanded the territory of the Mughal Empire with victories in South India. He was the last of the most powerful rulers of the Mughal dynasty. After his death, the power of the Mughal Empire declined quickly due to ineffective successors and the rise of the colonial British Empire whose conquests eventually led to British Raj.[3]

Aurangzeb
اورنگ زیب
Shah
Amir al-Mu'minin
Mirza
Sword of Islam
Aurangzeb dressed in full armour mounted on a horse
6th Mughal Emperor
Reign31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707
Coronation13 June 1659
PredecessorShah Jahan
SuccessorMuhammad Azam Shah
Born(1618-11-04)4 November 1618 (N.S.)
Dahod, Mughal Empire
Died3 March 1707(1707-03-03) (aged 88)
Ahmednagar, India
Burial
HouseTimurid
DynastyTimurid
FatherShah jehan
MotherMumtaz Mahal
ReligionSunni Islam (Hanafi)

His rule saw the spread of Islam in South Asia, and Islamic law was strictly imposed on all subjects of the empire, which led to dissatisfaction among the non-Muslim population towards the Mughal rule.[4] Aurangzeb is often considered the most controversial Mughal ruler in India, as his rule involved the imposition of a discriminatory jizya tax on non-Muslims and the demolition of many Hindu temples.[5]

Trade & Commerce change

His administration of the Mughal Empire led to its apex in terms of territory and wealth. Emperor Aurangzeb's exchequer raised a record £100 million in annual revenue through various sources like taxes, customs, and land revenue. He had annual yearly revenue of $450 million, more than ten times that of his contemporary {Louis XIV of France}. He was popular with traders as he abolished many local taxes levied by the previous rulers

Islamic Laws change

He reintroduced the practice of Jaziya, an additional tax on non-Muslim subjects. He also banned the consumption of alcohol and singing in court. Under his rule, Islamic scholars compiled the Fatawa Alamgiri, which served as the Islamic law of India for several centuries.[6][7]

Conflicts with the Rajputs & Sikhs change

Aurangzeb had to deal with the Rajput rulers of Marwar, Mewar, and Jaipur states. Raja Jaswant Singh of Marwar, an ally of the Mughals, was deputed to the north-western frontier, where he died fighting the Afghan rebels in 1678. With no apparent successor to the throne of Marwar, it was occupied by Aurangzeb. Meanwhile, a son of Jaswant Singh, Ajit Singh, was born and claimed the throne, which Aurangzeb refused. This began a Rajput struggle against the Mughals until Aurangzeb's successor recognized Ajit Singh as the ruler of Marwar.[3]

Guru Tegh Bahadur, who was the ninth Sikh guru, was executed in 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi, India. [8]

Destruction of Hindu Temples change

Contemporary court chronicles mention that hundreds of Hindu temples were demolished by Aurangzeb or his chieftains upon his orders, including temples in Khandela, Jodhpur, Udaipur and Chittor.[9]; and in September 1669, he ordered the destruction of one of the major Hindu temples, Kashi Vishvanath Temple at Varanasi.[10]

References change

  1. Dictionary of Wars. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. 2013. p. 387. ISBN 9781135954949.
  2. Thackeray, Frank W. (2012). John E. Findling (ed.). Events that formed the modern world : from the European Renaissance through the War on Terror. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 248. ISBN 9781598849011.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Seiple, Chris (2013). The Routledge handbook of religion and security. New York: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.
  4. McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 22 (sup001). Taylor & Francis: 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379. ISSN 0085-6401.
  5. "Why Aurangzeb is so controversial? Here is everything you should know about the Mughal emperor". Economic Times. 11 June 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  6. Brown, Katherine Butler (January 2007). "Did Aurangzeb Ban Music? Questions for the Historiography of his Reign". Modern Asian Studies. 41 (1): 79. doi:10.1017/S0026749X05002313. S2CID 145371208.
  7. "Aurangzeb". History & Information. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  8. Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2017.;
    Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 121 (1). American Oriental Society: 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726. JSTOR 606726.;
    Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 117 (4). American Oriental Society: 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. JSTOR 606445.;
    McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 22 (sup001). Taylor & Francis: 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379. ISSN 0085-6401.
  9. Mukhia, Harbans (2004), For Conquest and Governance: Legitimacy, Religion and Political Culture", The Mughals of India, John Wiley & Sons, p. 25, ISBN 9780470758304
  10. {{citation |last=Eaton |first=Richard |title= Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States |year=2000 |page=230 |publisher= Journal of Islamic Studies. 11 (3): 307–308 |quote=In early 1670, soon after the ring-leader of these rebellions had been captured near Mathura, Aurangzeb ordered the destruction of the city's Keshava Deva temple and built an Islamic structure ('īd-gāh) on its site ... Nine years later, the emperor ordered the destruction of several prominent temples in Rajasthan that had become associated with imperial enemies. These included temples in Khandela ... Jodhpur ... Udaipur and Chitor.

Other websites change

  Media related to Aurangzeb at Wikimedia Commons

Aurangzeb
Born: 4 November 1618 Died: 3 March 1707
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Shah Jahan
Mughal Emperor
1658–1707
Succeeded by
Bahadur Shah I