2nd mughal emperor

Nasir uddin Muhammad Humayun (Persian: نصیر الدین محمد همایون‎; OS 7 March 1508 AD – OS 17 January 1556 AD) was the second Mughal Emperor. He ruled Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530 to 1540. He was the son of the previous emperor, Babur.

Painting of Humayun, c. 1700.jpg
The Mughal Emperor Humayun
Fictional flag of the Mughal Empire.svg 2nd Mughal Emperor
Reign26 December 1530 AD – 17 May 1540 AD
22 February 1555 AD– 27 January 1556 AD
Coronation30 December 1530, Agra
Born(1508-03-17)17 March 1508
Kabul, modern-day Afghanistan
Died27 January 1556(1556-01-27) (aged 47)
SpouseHaji Begum
Bega Begum
Hamida Banu Begum
Bigeh Begum
Miveh Jan
Shahzadi Khanum
IssueAkbar, son

Mirza Muhammad Hakim, son
Aqiqeh Begum, daughter
Bakshi Banu Begum, daughter

Bakht-un-Nisa Begum, daughter
MotherMaham Begum

His son was Akbar, one of the most famous emperors in Mughal history.

Military campaignsEdit

In 1532, Humayun and Sher Shah Suri clashed on the battlefield. Humayun won the battle and capured Chunar. In 1534, Humayun defeated Bahadur Shah and captured Gujarat. Sher Shah meanwhile regrouped and defeated Humayun, at Chausa in 1539 and at Kanauj a year later.

Humayun was forced to go to Persia in exile, for 15 years. In 1555, Humayun returned to India and defeated the succesor of Sher Shah, Islam Shah and regained India.

War with Bahadur Shah

In 1531, Bahadur Shah overran Malwa and the next year he turned to Mewar. Humayun marched against Bahadur Shah and easily defeated his forces. Bahadur Shah fled to Ahemdabad and from there to Kathisawar.


In 1556, Humayun had a fatal fall from the stairs of his private observatory; he was carrying books and he tripped as his feet were caught in his robe when he bent down on hearing the "azaan". All medical aid proved useless, and Humayun died.