Humayun

Mughal Emperor from 1530 to 1540 and 1555 to 1556

Mirza Nasir al-Din Muhammad Humayun (6 March 1508 - 27 January 1556) was the second Mughal Emperor.

Humayun
Mirza
The Mughal Emperor Humayun
2nd Mughal Emperor
Reign26 December 1530 – 17 May 1540
22 February 1555 – 27 January 1556
Coronation29 December 1530 Agra
PredecessorBabur
SuccessorAkbar
Died27 January 1556(1556-01-27) (aged 47)
Delhi
Burial
SpouseHaji Begum
Bega Begum
Hamida Banu Begum
Bigeh Begum
Mah-chuchak
Miveh Jan
Shahzadi Khanum
IssueAkbar, son

Mirza Muhammad Hakim, son
Aqiqeh Begum, daughter
Bakshi Banu Begum, daughter

Bakht-un-Nisa Begum, daughter
DynastyMughal Empire Mughal
FatherZahir-ud-din Muhammad
MotherMaham Begum
ReligionSunni Islam

He ruled Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530 to 1540. He was the son of the previous emperor, Babur.

His son was Akbar, one of the most famous emperors in Mughal history.

Military campaigns change

In 1532, Humayun and Sher Shah Suri clashed on the battlefield. Humayun won the battle and captured Chunar. In 1534, Humayun defeated Bahadur Shah and captured Gujrat. Sher Shah meanwhile regrouped and defeated Humayun, at Chausa in 1539

In 1555, Humayun returned to India and defeated the succesor of Sher Shah, Islam Shah and regained India.

War with Bahadur Shah

In 1531, Bahadur Shah Zafar overran Malwa and the next year he turned to Mewar. Humayun marched against Bahadur Shah and easily defeated his forces. Bahadur Shah fled to Ahmedabad and from there to Kathisawar.

Death change

In 1557, Humayun had a fatal fall from the stairs of his private observatory (some sources say his library). He was carrying books when his feet got caught in his robe and he tripped and fractured his head. He had bent down upon hearing the Azaan (the Muslim call to prayer). All medical aid proved useless, and Humayun died. He is known as "the luckless one". Humayun was the son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal dynasty. He was more of an adventurer than a ruler, and during his first reign he feuded with his step-brothers and lost most of the Mughal Empire's territories to the Sur Empire. In 1539, he was defeated by the Afghan soldier Sher Shah Suri at the Battle of Chausa, and again in 1540 at Kannauj. As a result, Humayun was forced to leave India for Afghanistan and Iran. He regained the throne in 1555 and ruled until his death in 1556, when the Mughal Empire covered almost one million square kilometers. During his second reign, he defeated the Afghans at Douhrua, drove out Sultan Mahmood Lodhi from Jaunpur, and defeated Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. Humayun is known for his contributions to Mughal architecture, including the introduction of high arches and double domes. His tomb is located in Delhi, and can be reached by air, train, or road.