List of Roman emperors

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This is a list of the Roman emperors:

Many of them were murdered by relatives, enemies, friends, and soldiers.

Emperor of the Romans
Former Monarchy
Cameo of an eagle, a symbol of the Roman emperors (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)
First monarch Augustus
Last monarch Constantine XI
Julius Nepos (western empire)
Style Imperator, Augustus, Caesar, Princeps, Dominus Noster, Autokrator or Basileus (depending on period)
Appointer Senate and People of Rome
(The Roman army represents the people)
Monarchy started 16 January 27 BC
Monarchy ended May 1453 AD
  1. Augustus
  2. Tiberius, married to the daughter of Augustus
  3. Caligula, Tiberius's grand-nephew. Death by regicide during 41 BC in his 28th year.[1]
  4. Claudius, Caligula's uncle. Claudius conquered Britain, making it part of the Roman Empire.
  5. Nero, Claudius's grand-nephew. Accused Christians of burning down Rome. First Roman Emperor to commit suicide.
  1. Galba, military leader under Claudius.
  2. Otho, friend of Nero.
  3. Vitellius, military leader under Galba. Vitellius banned astrologers from Rome.
  1. Vespasian, military leader under Claudius. Vespasian began the building of the Colosseum.
  2. Titus, Vespasian's son. Titus finished building the Colosseum.
  3. Domitian, Titus's younger brother. Domitian conquered southern Scotland, making it (temporarily) part of the Roman Empire.
  1. Nerva, friend of Nero, who had saved Nero's life.
  2. Trajan. Under Trajan, the Roman Empire was at its largest size ever.
  3. Hadrian - Hadrian built Hadrian's Wall in Britain, to prevent the Picts from invading Roman Britain. Hadrian died in 138 AD. From 138 AD until 284 AD, there were 32 more emperors.
  4. Antoninus Pius
  5. Lucius Verus
  6. Marcus Aurelius
  7. Commodus
Bronze nude statue of Trebonianus Gallus, a 3rd-century Roman emperor
  1. Diocletian in 284 AD, created the tetrarchy, abdicated.
  2. Maximian
  3. Galerius
  4. Constantius Chlorus
  5. Valerius Severus
  6. Constantine in 306 AD. Founded the city of Constantinople at Byzantium. Converted to Christianity.
  7. Maxentius
  8. Licinius
  9. Maximinus II
  10. Constantine II, son of Constantine
  11. Constantius II, son of Constantine
  12. Constans I, son of Constantine
  13. Vetranio
  14. Julian
  15. Jovian
  • Valentinianic dynasty
  • Theodosian dynasty
  1. Theodosius I in 395 AD. He split the Roman Empire into two parts. The western part lasted until 476 AD, when it became ruled by the Germanic people. The eastern part lasted until 1453, when it became part of the Ottoman/Turkish Empire.

Note there were also numerous usurpers ("fake" emperors) including:

  1. Domitianus II (usurper)


  1. Jesús David CHARRY-SÁNCHEZ, Alberto VELEZ-VAN-MEERBEKE, and Leonardo PALACIOS-SÁNCHEZ "A BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW" Caligula: a neuropsychiatric explanation of his madness Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2021 Apr; 79(4): 343–345.Published online 2021 May 8. doi: 10.1590/0004-282X-ANP-2020-0358