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Darwiish State

A militant Somali resistance movement against colonial powers between 1899 and 1920 led by Sufi leader Mohammed Hassan
(Redirected from Daraawiish State)

The Darwiish state (also spelled Daraawiish State) was the successor state to the Dhulbahante garaadship. It existed from 1896 to 1921.[1] It was ruled by a government called Xarunta. The supreme commander was Ismail Mire. The head of state was the Sayyid.[2] The Darwiishes began growing in the first Darwiish capital in Dareemo Caddo, near Buuhoodle. It ended in the final Darwiish capital in Taleh.[3]

Darwiish State

1896–1921
Flag of Darwiish
Flag
Motto: Ismail Mire poems
Gobanimada Dhulbahante (Dhulbahante independence)
Anthem: Ismail Mire poems
Territory of Darwiish
Territory of Darwiish
StatusSayyidate
Dhulbahante anti-colonial state
CapitalDareemo Caddo (first)
Baran, Sool (expeditions)
Taleh (last)
Common languagesSomali
Demonym(s)Darwiishi
Darwiishes
Daraawiish
Duubcad
Reer Nugaal
Dhulbahante
GovernmentAutocracy
Sayyid 
• 1896-1920
Sayyid Hassan
Khusuusi 
• 1900-1920
Ismail Mire
LegislatureKhusuusi
History 
• Assembly in Dareemo Caddo (Buuhoodle)
1896
• Dhulbahante cavalry launched
April 1899
• Declared a Dhulbahante State
May 1899
• Dhulbahante tribes punished
May 1901
• Air raids on Taleh
1921
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Dhulbahante garaadship
British Empire

TerminologyEdit

Darwiish may come from Al Darawish which means "simple people" in Arabic. It may also come from dar al wiish which is Arabic and Balochi for land of happy people. The Darwiish sometimes referred to their opponents as kabacad or gumeysiraac.[4]

HistoryEdit

On Mar 3, 1905 the "Mad Mullah" declared himself Sayyid of Nogal (other name of the Nugaal valley) in northern Italian Somalia. His full name was sultan" Mahamad Abdullah Hasan. The territory coincided approximately with the actual Nugaal area in northeastern Somalia. It was ruled like a kind of sultanate in behalf of the Mahdi.

His rule was terminated by Italy in 1911. The Italian victory started on September 3, 1908 when Italian official Di Giorgio conquered Afgoi and the sultan of Ghelédi with his 5000 men surrendered to the Italians (who won an important battle at Araré and Eyl).

During 1910-1914, Sayyid's capital moved from Illig to Taleex in the heart of Nugaal where he built three garrison forts of massive stone work and a number of houses. He built a "luxurious" palace for himself and kept new guards drawn from outcast clans. By 1913, he had dominated the entire hinterland of the Somali peninsula by building forts at Jildali and Mirashi in Warsangali country, at Werder and Qorahy in the Ogaden and Beledweyne in southern Somalia.

After the collapse of Muhammad Abdullah Hassan’s resistance movement,[5] rebellion and revolt occurred with disputes between different tribes in Northern Somalia.

The Italian government of Somalia again worked together with the old tribesmen in order to try and keep peace between the several tribes, while maintaining close control over the military.[6]

Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (nicknamed the "Mad Mullah" by the British) escaped from the British Somali Coast Protectorate in 1920 to Imey Ethiopia, where he later died in 1921.

XaruntaEdit

The xarunta had ministers called qusuusi. It also had commanders called muqaddim. The most important people in Xarunta were Xayd Aaden Gallaydh, Ismail Mire, the Sayyid, Xirsi Cartan Boos, Xasan Gaagguf, Xirsiwaal Cashuur, Muuse Taagane, Aw Abbas Xuseen, Afqarshe Xassan Ismail, Macalin Cagadhiig, Shire Cumbaal, Faarax Kaligiimaadhle, Faarax Qarshi, and the four Seed Magan brothers (i.e. Obsiiye, Oogle, Jaamac and Aaden).[7]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. A History of Our Own Times ...: From the diamond jubilee, 1897, to the accession of King Edward VII, p 106
  2. Issa-Salwe, Abdisalam M. "The Failure of the Daraawiish State: The clash between Somali clanship and state system." Paper Presented at the 5th International Congress of Somali Studies December. 1993.
  3. Xasuus qor: timelines of Somali history, 1400-2000 - Page 25
  4. Samatar, Said S. "Gabay-Ḥayir: A Somali Mock Heroic Song." Research in African Literatures (1980): 449-478.
  5. Dervish Resistance movement
  6. Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism, p 146
  7. diiwaanka gabayadii sayidka

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