Hosni Mubarak

President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011

Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك; 4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (حسنى مبارك), was an Egyptian politician. He served as President of Egypt from 14 October 1981 to 11 February 2011.

Hosni Mubarak
حسني مبارك
Mubarak in 2009
President of Egypt
In office
14 October 1981 – 11 February 2011
Prime MinisterAhmad Fuad Mohieddin
Kamal Hassan Ali
Aly Lotfy Mahmoud
Atef Sedky
Kamal Ganzouri
Atef Ebeid
Ahmed Nazif
Ahmed Shafik
Vice PresidentOmar Suleiman[a]
Preceded bySufi Abu Taleb (Acting)
Succeeded byMohamed Hussein Tantawi (acting)
Mohamed Morsi[1][2][3]
Prime Minister of Egypt
In office
7 October 1981 – 2 January 1982
PresidentSufi Abu Taleb (Acting)
Preceded byAnwar El Sadat
Succeeded byAhmad Fuad Mohieddin
Vice President of Egypt
In office
16 April 1975 – 14 October 1981
PresidentAnwar El Sadat
Preceded byHussein el-Shafei
Succeeded byOmar Suleiman[a]
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
16 July 2009 – 11 February 2011
Preceded byRaúl Castro
Succeeded byMohamed Hussein Tantawi (Acting)
Commander of the Air Force
In office
23 April 1972 – 16 April 1975
PresidentAnwar El Sadat
Preceded byAli Mustafa Baghdady
Succeeded byMahmoud Shaker
Director of the Egyptian Air Academy
In office
Preceded byYahia Saleh Al-Aidaros
Succeeded byMahmoud Shaker
Personal details
Born(1928-05-04)4 May 1928
Kafr-El Meselha, Kingdom of Egypt
Died25 February 2020(2020-02-25) (aged 91)
Cairo, Egypt
Political partyNational Democratic Party (1978-2011)
Suzanne Thabet (m. 1959)
Alma mater
Military service
Allegiance Egypt
Branch/service Egyptian Air Force
Years of service1950–1975
RankAir Chief Marshal[c]
CommandsCairo West Air Base
Beni Suef Air Base
Egyptian Air Academy
Egyptian Air Force
a. ^ Office vacant from 14 October 1981 to 29 January 2011
b. ^ as Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
c. ^ c. military rank withdrawn after trial
Hosni Mubarak

Mubarak became the vice-president of the Republic of Egypt after moving up the ranks of the Egyptian Air Force. Then he became the President after President Anwar Sadat was assassinated on 6 October 1981. His almost thirty-year presidency made him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha.[4]

As President of Egypt, Mubarak is thought to have been one of the most powerful leaders in the region. Under the 1971 Constitution of Egypt, Mubarak exercised strong control over the country and was generally considered a dictator. In 2005, he called an election and easily won it. Many opponents believed Mubarak changed the election results so he could win.

In early 2011, during the Arab Spring, there were huge protests against his government. In the end, Mubarak resigned and handed over power to the armed forces. It is hoped that elections later that year for a new government. On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was sentenced to life imprisonment for ordering the shooting of protesters in the revolution that ousted him.

On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial.[5] On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences.[6] Mubarak was detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court.[7]

He was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by the Court of Cassation and released on 24 March 2017.[8][9]

He died on 25 February 2020 at a Cairo hospital after having surgery, aged 91.[10][11]

References change

  1. Conal Urquhart and agencies (30 June 2012). "Mohamed Morsi sworn in as Egyptian president". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  2. Samer al-Atrush (1 July 2012). "Morsi sworn in as Egypt president". Herald Sun. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  3. Yasmine Saleh and Shaimaa Fayed (24 June 2012). "Islamist Morsy wins Egyptian presidency with 52 pct". Reuters Africa. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  4. Slackman, Michael (8 March 2010). "Hosni Mubarak". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  5. Egypt's Mubarak to get retrial Archived 20 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. 3 News. Retrieved on 2014-01-16.
  6. "Egypt's Hosni Mubarak jailed in corruption retrial". BBC News. 9 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  7. "Jailed sons of Egypt's deposed leader Hosni Mubarak freed". Associated Press. 13 October 2015.
  8. "Egypt's Hosni Mubarak acquitted over 2011 protester deaths". 3 March 2017.
  9. "Egypt's Hosni Mubarak freed after six years in detention". BBC News. 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  10. "Egypt's former president Hosni Mubarak dies at 91". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2020-02-25.
  11. "Former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak dies". BBC News. 2020-02-25. Retrieved 2020-02-25.