long term medical condition with elevated arterial blood pressure

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is higher than it should be. This involves the heart working harder than normal to circulate blood through the blood vessels.

Classification and external resources
Automated arm blood pressure meter showing hypertension (with a systolic blood pressure of 158 and diastolic blood pressure of 99)
eMedicinemed/1106 ped/1097 emerg/267

Blood pressure change

The pressure in the arteries changes depending on what the heart is doing. When the heart squeezes, pumping blood into the arteries, the pressure increases. When the heart relaxes, the pressure decreases. When blood pressure is measured, the highest pressure (when the heart is squeezing) is called the systolic blood pressure. The lowest pressure (when the heart is relaxing) is called the diastolic blood pressure.

Blood pressure is written as two numbers. For example, in the picture at the right, the person's systolic blood pressure was 158. Their diastolic blood pressure was 99. This blood pressure is written as 158/99. It is said "158 over 99."

Types change

There are two types of hypertension, called “primary” and “secondary.” Primary hypertension means that the hypertension is not caused by any other disease or condition and it gradually develops over time with age. Secondary hypertension means that the hypertension is caused by another disease or conditions. Secondary hypertension tend to result in higher blood pressure than primary hypertension.[1] In most cases (90-95%), hypertension is primary. Only a small amount of hypertension (5-10%) is secondary.

There are various health conditions that leads to secondary hypertension which includes: Obstructive sleep apnea, Kidney problems, Adrenal gland tumors, Thyroid problems, Certain defects you're born with (congenital) in blood vessels, Certain medications (birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs), Illegal drugs (cocaine and amphetamines).[1]

Complications change

Hypertension can cause many problems, including heart attack, stroke, Aneurysm, congestive heart failure, kidney failure, vision loss, Metabolic syndrome, Dementia, etc..[1]

  • To stay healthy, most people should try to keep their blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg.[2]

Risk Factors change

The risk factors includes age, Race, Family history or genes, obesity, lack of physical activity, chewing or smoking tobacco, too much salt in diet, not enough potassium in diet, alcohol, stress, kidney disease, diabetes and sleep apnea.[1]

Treatment change

Lifestyle changes change

Hypertension can often be fixed with changes in diet or lifestyle. The 2004 British Hypertension Society suggests that people with high blood pressure:[3]

Medicine change

If lifestyle changes do not decrease a person's blood pressure, then the person may need medications. A doctor will choose which medications to use, based on what other medical problems the person has. Examples of medications that decrease blood pressure include:

Effectiveness change

Even small decreases in blood pressure can have a large effect on a person's health. For example, decreasing blood pressure by 5 mmHg (for example, from 150/100 to 145/95 mmHg) can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%. It can also decrease the risk of heart disease by 21%.[4]

Related pages change

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "High blood pressure (hypertension) - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2019-10-28.
  2. Arguedas, J. A.; Perez, M. I.; Wright, J. M. (Jul 8, 2009). Arguedas, Jose Agustin (ed.). "Treatment blood pressure targets for hypertension". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD004349. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004349.pub2. PMID 19588353.
  3. Williams, B; Poulter, NR, Brown, MJ, Davis, M, McInnes, GT, Potter, JF, Sever, PS, McG society (March 2004). "Guidelines for management of hypertension: report of the fourth working party of the British Hypertension Society, 2004-BHS IV". Journal of Human Hypertension 18 (3): 139–85. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001683. PMID 14973512
  4. Law M, Wald N, Morris J (2003). "Lowering blood pressure to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke: a new preventive strategy". Health Technol Assess 7 (31): 1–94. PMID 14604498.

What is Blood Pressure Or Hypertension ? Archived 2020-04-12 at the Wayback Machine