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Kosovo War

1990s armed conflict in Kosovo

The Kosovo War was a controversial war that took place from 1998 to 1999 in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Kosovo Liberation Army fought the Yugoslavian army from 1998 to 1999. In 1999 NATO bombed Yugoslavia to prevent genocide in Kosovo.

Kosovo War
Part of the Yugoslav Wars[2]
Kosovo War header.jpg
Clockwise from top-left: Yugoslav general staff headquarters damaged by NATO air strikes; a Zastava Koral buried under rubble caused by NATO air strikes; memorial to local KLA commanders; a USAF F-15E taking off from Aviano Air Base
DateFebruary 1998 – 11 June 1999
Location
Kosovo (then part of Yugoslavia) and Albania (Albanian & OSCE Claim)[3][4]
Result

Kumanovo Treaty

Territorial
changes
No legal changes to Yugoslav borders according to the Resolution 1244, but effective political and economic separation of Kosovo from Yugoslavia due to being placed under UN administration
Belligerents

Kosovo Liberation Army KLA


 Yugoslavia
Commanders and leaders

Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Adem Jashari 
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Hashim Thaçi
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Bilall Syla
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Hamëz Jashari 
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Sylejman Selimi
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Ramush Haradinaj
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army Agim Çeku


NATO Wesley Clark


Albania Kudusi Lama [11]

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević
Dragoljub Ojdanić
Nebojša Pavković
Vlastimir Đorđević[12]

Vladimir Lazarević[13]
Sreten Lukić
Strength

Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army 17,000–20,000 KLA insurgents[14]


NATO cca. 80 aircraft
(Operation Eagle Eye)[15]
NATO 1,031 aircraft
(Operation Allied Force)[16]
NATO 30+ warships and submarines[17]

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 85,000 soldiers[18] (including 40,000 in and around Kosovo)[17]
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 20,000 policemen
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 100 SAM sites[17]
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1,400 artillery pieces
(Both ground & air defence)[17]
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 240 aircraft [17]
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 2,032 armoured vehicles & tanks[17]
Serbian paramilitary units (Šakali, Škorpioni), unknown number

Russia Russian volunteers, unknown number [19][20]
Casualties and losses

Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army 1,500 insurgents killed (per the KLA)[21]
Logo of the Kosovo Liberation Army 2,131 insurgents killed (per the HLC)[22]


United States 2 killed (non-combat) and 3 captured[23][24]
United States 2 aircraft shot down and 3 damaged[25][26][27][28]
United States Two AH-64 Apaches and an AV-8B Harrier crashed (non-combat)[29]
NATO 47 UAVs shot down[30]

France Possible unknown number of DGSE officers killed[31]

Caused by KLA:
300+ soldiers killed (per the Yugoslav military)[32]
Caused by NATO:
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1,008–1,200 killed[b]
14 tanks,[37] 18 APCs, 20 artillery pieces[38] and 121 aircraft and helicopters destroyed[39]

Caused by KLA and NATO:
1,084 killed (per the HLC)[22]

Albania 8,676 Kosovar Albanian civilians killed or missing[22]
Albania 90% of Kosovar Albanians displaced during the war[40] (848,000–863,000 expelled from Kosovo,[41][42][43] 590,000 Kosovar Albanians displaced within Kosovo)[40]
1,641[22]–2,500[44] Serb and other non-Albanian civilians killed or missing (445 Roma and others)[22]
230,000 Kosovo Serbs, Romani and other non-Albanian civilians displaced[45]
/Albania Civilian deaths caused by NATO bombing: 489–528 (per Human Rights Watch)[46] or 453–2,500 (per the HLC and Tanjug);[22][44] also includes China 3 Chinese journalists killed

13,548 civilians and fighters dead overall (Albanians, Serbs, Bosniaks, Roma)[47]

ReferencesEdit

  1. "The Balkans/Allied Force: Statistics". planken.org. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
  2. Thomas (2006), p. 47
  3. Daniszewski, John (1999-04-14). "Yugoslav Troops Said to Cross Into Albania". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  4. Daly, Emma (1999-04-14). "War In The Balkans: Serbs enter Albania and burn village". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  5. Reitman, Valerie; Richter, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (1999-06-10). "Yugoslav, NATO Generals Sign Peace Agreement for Kosovo / Alliance will end air campaign when Serbian troops pull out". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  6. "Abuses against Serbs and Roma in the new Kosovo". Human Rights Watch. August 1999.
  7. Hudson, Robert; Bowman, Glenn (2012). After Yugoslavia: Identities and Politics Within the Successor States. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-230-20131-6.
  8. "Kosovo Crisis Update". UNHCR. August 4, 1999.
  9. "Forced Expulsion of Kosovo Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians from OSCE Participated state to Kosovo". OSCE. October 6, 2006.
  10. Siobhán Wills (26 February 2009). Protecting Civilians: The Obligations of Peacekeepers. Oxford University Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-19-953387-9. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  11. Katamaj, Halil (2002), Kudusi Lama, War General of division of Kukes, during the Kosovo war, Tiranë: Mokra, ISBN 978-99927-781-0-4[page needed]
  12. "BBC News – Serbian Vlastimir Djordjevic jailed over Kosovo murders". BBC News. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
  13. "Serbia charges police officers with 1999 Kosovo murders". SETimes.com. 2006-04-28. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
  14. John Pike. "Kosovo Liberation Army [KLA / UCK]". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
  15. 12 mal bewertet (24 March 1999). "Die Bundeswehr zieht in den Krieg". 60xdeutschland.de. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
  16. John Pike. "Kosovo Order of Battle". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 "NATO Operation Allied Force". Defense.gov. Archived from the original on 2010-02-28. Retrieved 2012-02-28. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  18. Kosovo Map The Guardian
  19. "Fighting for a foreign land". BBC News. 1999-05-20. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
  20. "Russian volunteer's account of Kosovo". The Russia Journal. 1999-07-05. Archived from the original on 2011-12-26. Retrieved 2012-02-28. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  21. Daalder & O'Hanlon 2000, p. 151
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 "Kosovo Memory Book Database Presentation and Evaluation" (PDF). Humanitarian Law Center. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  23. "Two die in Apache crash". BBC News. 1999-05-05. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
  24. John Pike. "Operation Allied Force". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
  25. "How to Take Down an F-117". Strategypage.com. 2005-11-21. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
  26. "Holloman commander recalls being shot down in Serbia". F-16.net. February 7, 2007. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
  27. "A-10 Thunderbolt II". Ejection-history.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2012-01-19. Retrieved 2012-02-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  28. "F-117 damage said attributed to full moon". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 1999-05-06. p. A14. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  29. "Nato loses two planes". BBC News. 1999-05-02. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
  30. Andrei Kislyakov (October 9, 2007). "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Increase In Numbers". Radardaily.com. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
  31. Alleged connections between top Kosovo politicians and assassin investigated | World news | The Guardian
  32. Robert Fisk (21 June 1999). "Serb army 'unscathed by Nato', KLA 'killed more Serbs than Nato did'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  33. "NATO nam ubio 1.008 vojnika i policajaca". Mondo. Retrieved 2013-02-11.
  34. Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2006). The Balkans: A Post-Communist History. Routledge. p. 558. ISBN 978-0-203-96911-3.
  35. Chambers II, John Whiteclay (1999). The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-19-507198-6.
  36. Coopersmith, Jonathan; Launius, Roger D. (2003). Taking Off: A Century of Manned Flight. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-56347-610-5.
  37. Andrew Cockburn (3 April 2011). "The limits of air power". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
  38. Macdonald 2007, pp. 99.
  39. Bacevich & Cohen 2001, p. 22
  40. 40.0 40.1 "Facts and Figurues - War in Europe". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  41. "Serbia: 13,000 killed and missing from Kosovo war – rights group". Relief Web. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
  42. Judah, Tim (2009). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-300-15826-7.
  43. Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen. pp. Part III, Chap 14.
  44. 44.0 44.1 "Serbia marks anniversary of NATO bombing". B92. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
  45. Judah, Tim (2008-09-29). Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-974103-8.
  46. "Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign – The Crisis In Kosovo". HRW. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
  47. "Kosovo Memory Book". HLC. Archived from the original on 2012-06-03. Retrieved 2019-01-17. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

Notes

  1. [6][7][8][9][10]
  2. Serbia claims that 1,008 Yugoslav soldiers and policemen were killed by NATO bombing.[33] NATO initially claimed that 5,000 Yugoslav servicemen had been killed and 10,000 had been wounded during the NATO air campaign.[34][35] NATO has since revised this estimation to 1,200 Yugoslav soldiers and policemen killed.[36]

Related pagesEdit