List of presidents of Portugal

Wikimedia list article

The complete list of presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the 5 October 1910 revolution.

ListEdit

     Republican
     Democratic
     National Republican/Sidonist
     Evolutionist Party/Republican Liberal
     National Union/Popular National Action
     Democratic Renewal
     Socialist
     Social Democratic
     No party

First Republic (1910–1926)Edit

No. President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Elected Term of office Political party Ref.
President of the Provisional Government of the Republic (1910–1911)
- Teófilo Braga[1]
(1843–1924)
  October 5, 1910 August 24, 1911 Republican [source?]
Presidents of the Republic (1911–1926)
1 Manuel de Arriaga
(1840–1917)
  1911 August 24, 1911 May 26, 1915[R] Republican
later Democratic Republican[2]
[3][2]
2 Teófilo Braga
(1843–1924)
  May
1915
May 29, 1915 October 5, 1915 Democratic Republican[4] [3][4]
3 Bernardino Machado
(1851–1944)
  August
1915
October 5, 1915 December 5, 1917[C] Democratic Republican[5] [3][5]
- Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: Sidónio Pais
December 12, 1917 April 28, 1918 [3][6]
4 Sidónio Pais[7]
(1872–1918)
  April
1918
April 28, 1918 December 14, 1918[A] National Republican
or "Sidonist"[source?]
[3][6]
- Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: João do Canto e Castro
December 14, 1918 December 16, 1918 [source?]
5 João do Canto e Castro[8]
(1862–1934)
  December
1918
December 16, 1918 October 5, 1919 National Republican
or "Sidonist"[source?]
[3][9]
6 António José de Almeida
(1866–1929)
  1919 October 5, 1919 October 5, 1923 Evolutionist Party
later Republican Liberal[source?]
[3][10]
7 Manuel Teixeira Gomes
(1860–1941)
  1923 October 5, 1923 December 11, 1925[R] Democratic Republican[source?] [3][11]
8 Bernardino Machado
(1851–1944)
2nd time
  1925 December 11, 1925 May 31, 1926[C] Democratic Republican[source?] [3][5]

Second Republic (1926–1974)Edit

No. President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Elected Term of office Political party Ref.
Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) (1926–1932)
9 José Mendes Cabeçadas[12]
(1883–1965)
  May 31, 1926 June 17, 1926[C] Military officer[source?] [3][13]
- Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: Manuel Gomes da Costa
June 17, 1926 June 29, 1926 [source?]
10 Manuel Gomes da Costa[12]
(1863–1929)
  June 29, 1926 July 9, 1926[C] Military officer[source?] [3][14]
- Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: Óscar Carmona
July 9, 1926 November 16, 1926 [3][15]
11 Óscar Carmona[12][16]
(1869–1951)
  November 16, 1926 March 25, 1928 Military officer [3][15]
Estado Novo (New State) (1932–1974)
11 Óscar Carmona
(1869–1951)
  1928 April 15, 1928 April 26, 1935 Military officer
from 1932
National Union
[3][15]
1935 April 26, 1935 April 15, 1942
1942 April 15, 1942 April 20, 1949
1949 April 20, 1949 April 18, 1951[D]
- António de Oliveira Salazar[17]
(1889–1970)
(interim)
  April 18, 1951 July 21, 1951 National Union [source?]
12 Francisco Craveiro Lopes
(1894–1964)
  1951 July 21, 1951 August 9, 1958 National Union [3][18]
13 Américo Tomás
(1894–1987)
  1958 August 9, 1958 August 9, 1965 National Union
from 1970
People's National Action
[3][19]
1965 August 9, 1965 August 9, 1972
1972 August 9, 1972 April 25, 1974[C]

Third Republic (1974–present)Edit

No. President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Elected Term of office Political party Ref.
Presidents appointed in the aftermath of the Carnation Revolution (1974–1976)
- National Salvation Junta[20]
President: António de Spínola
April 25, 1974 May 15, 1974 [21]
14 António de Spínola
(1910–1996)
  May 15, 1974 September 30, 1974[R] Military officer [3][21]
15 Francisco da Costa Gomes
(1914–2001)
  September 30, 1974 July 13, 1976 Military officer [3][22]
Presidents elected under the Constitution of the Republic (1976–present)
16 António Ramalho Eanes
(born 1935)
  1976 July 14, 1976 January 14, 1981 Military officer
from 1985
Democratic Renewal
[3][23]
1980 January 14, 1981 March 9, 1986
17 Mário Soares
(1924–2017)
  1986 March 9, 1986 March 9, 1991 Socialist [3][24]
1991 March 9, 1991 March 9, 1996
18 Jorge Sampaio
(1939-2021)
  1996 March 9, 1996 March 9, 2001 Socialist [3][25]
2001 March 9, 2001 March 9, 2006
19 Aníbal Cavaco Silva
(born in 1939)
  2006 March 9, 2006 March 9, 2011 Social Democratic [3][26]
2011 March 9, 2011 March 9, 2016
20 Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
(born 1948)
  2016 March 9, 2016 March 9, 2021 Social Democratic [27]
2021 March 9, 2021 Incumbent
(Term ends on March 9, 2026)
  • Left office early:
[A] Assassinated.
[D] Died in office of natural causes.
[R] Resigned.
[C] Forced to resign due to a coup d'état.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Teófilo Braga served as President of the Provisional Government, the de facto head of government and head of state, from the republican revolution of 1910 to the election of Manuel de Arriaga, the 1st President of Portugal.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Manuel de Arriaga - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 Braga, Paulo Drumond 1965- (2010). "Os Presidentes da República Portuguesa : sociologia de uma função". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Teófilo Braga". PRESIDENCY OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Bernardino Machado - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Sidónio Pais - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  7. After leading a coup d'état, Sidónio Pais became President of the Revolutionary Junta and later Prime Minister (President of the Ministry). He then abolished the post of Prime Minister, assuming himself as the head of government as President of the Republic. He was assassinated in 1918.
  8. Canto e Castro was head of the Council of Ministers that served as the head of state of Portugal after the assassination of Sidónio Pais in 1918, from December 14 to December 16. He then became interim president until the election of António José de Almeida.
  9. "Canto e Castro - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  10. "António José de Almeida - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  11. "Teixeira Gomes - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Mendes Cabeçadas, Gomes da Costa and Óscar Carmona were the heads of the revolutionary provisional governments during the year of 1926. Although not called Presidents, they were de facto heads of state.
  13. "Mendes Cabeçadas - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  14. "Gomes da Costa - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 "Óscar Carmona - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  16. Óscar Carmona served initially as head of the revolutionary government after a counter-coup deposed Gomes da Costa. He was de facto head of state between July 9 and November 16, 1926. However he officially took office as President of the Republic on November 16, 1926. Six years later, in 1932, the Estado Novo was proclaimed and the National Union, the only legal party, was formed by António de Oliveira Salazar. Carmona joined the party and was the party's candidate for every presidential election (that were considered fraudulent) until 1951, when he died.
  17. António de Oliveira Salazar, the dictatorial President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) occupied the post of president interim between the death of Óscar Carmona and the election of Francisco Craveiro Lopes.
  18. "Craveiro Lopes - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  19. "Américo Tomás - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-09-04.
  20. Between the Carnation Revolution on April 25, 1974 and May 15 of the same year, António de Spínola was the head of the National Salvation Junta, being the de facto head of state and government. After May 15 Adelino da Palma Carlos became the Prime Minister, and Spínola continued as de jure head of state as President of the Republic.
  21. 21.0 21.1 "António de Spínola - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  22. "Costa Gomes - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  23. "Ramalho Eanes - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  24. "Mário Soares - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  25. "Jorge Sampaio - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  26. "Aníbal Cavaco Silva - PREVIOUS PRESIDENTS: - PRESIDENCIA.PT". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  27. "Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa". www.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-10-05.