Louis XVIII of France
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Louis XVIII, the desired (1755– 1824), king of France from April 1814 to March 1815 and again from July 1815 to September 1824. He ascended the throne in the Bourbon Restoration of the monarchy after the overthrow of Napoleon I and ruled a constitutional monarchy.
Portrait by François Gérard
|King of France|
|Reign||6 April 1814 – 20 March 1815|
|Predecessor||Napoleon I as Emperor|
|Reign||8 July 1815 – 16 September 1824|
|Born||17 November 1755|
Palace of Versailles, Kingdom of France
|Died||16 September 1824 (aged 68)|
Louvre Palace, Paris, Kingdom of France
|Spouse||Marie Joséphine of Savoy|
|Father||Louis, Dauphin of France|
|Mother||Maria Josepha of Saxony|
Born in Versailles, he was the brother of Louis XVI of France and in early life was known as the comte de Provence. He remained in Paris after the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 but escaped to Belgium two years later. After Louis XVI's execution in 1793 he proclaimed himself regent, and after the death of his brother's heir, Louis XVII, in 1795, he took the title Louis XVIII. He lived as an exile in various European countries until he became king after Napoleon's first abdication in 1814. On Napoleon's return to power in 1815, however, Louis again fled to Belgium; later the same year he was restored to the throne after Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo. The Charter, or constitution, that he promulgated in 1814 established a bicameral legislature, property qualifications for voters, and limitations on freedom of the press.
- In his official acts as king, Louis XVIII dated the years of his reign from 1795, when his nephew Louis XVII died.