Pedro II of Brazil

2nd and final Emperor of Brazil (r. 1831–89)

Dom Pedro II of Brazil (complete name: Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga; Rio de Janeiro, December 2, 1825 — Paris, December 5, 1891), known as O Magnânimo (The Magnanimous) (Portuguese: O Magnânimo),[1], was the second and last de facto Brazilian Emperor. He was the seventh son of Pedro I and the archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria. Pedro II succeeded his father in the Brazilian Throne when he was 16 years of age. Pedro I had to return to Portugal in order to rule over the country as an Emperor and this action made him abdicate from the Brazilian Throne in favor of his son. But, when in Portugal, Pedro I renounced the Portuguese Throne, in favor of his eldest daughter Dona Maria da Glória.

Pedro II
Dom Pedro II around age 61, c. 1887
Emperor of Brazil
Reign7 April 1831 - 15 November 1889
(58 years, 222 days)
Coronation18 July 1841
PredecessorPedro I
Head of the Brazilian Imperial Family
Pretendence15 November 1889 - 5 December 1891
(2 years, 20 days)
SuccessorIsabel, Princess Imperial
Born(1825-12-02)December 2, 1825
Palace of São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro
DiedDecember 5, 1891(1891-12-05) (aged 66)
Paris, France
SpouseTeresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies
IssueAfonso, Prince Imperial
Isabel, Princess Imperial
Leopoldina, Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary
Pedro, Prince Imperial
HouseHouse of Braganza
FatherPedro I of Brazil
MotherMaria Leopoldina of Austria

Pedro II was nephew of Miguel I (father's part), Napoleon Bonaparte (mother's part) and cousin of Emperors Napoleon II, Franz Joseph I and Maximilian I of Mexico. He was Maria da Glória's youngst brother and uncle of kings Pedro V and Luís I.

Name Portrait Lifespan Notes
By Pedro II of Brazil (2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891; married by proxy in 30 May 1843)
Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil   23 February 1845 –
11 June 1847
Prince Imperial of Brazil from birth to his death in 1847.
Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil   29 July 1846 –
14 November 1921
Princess Imperial of Brazil and Countess of Eu due to her marriage to Prince Gaston d'Orléans. She had 3 sons from this marriage. She also acted as Regent of the Empire while her father was traveling abroad.
Princess Leopoldina of Brazil   13 July 1847 –
7 February 1871
Married Prince Ludwig August of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary with 4 sons resulting from this marriage.
Pedro, Prince Imperial of Brazil   19 July 1848 –
9 January 1850
Prince Imperial of Brazil from birth to his death in 1850.


  1. Barman 1999, p. 85.