A personality disorder (PD) or character disorder is a type of disorder where a person thinks, feels and behaves differently from how society expects them to. Where these traits would be flexible in most people, these traits are rigid and unworkable in someone with a personality disorder and create lasting patterns and often lasting problems. These thoughts, feelings and behaviours can cause problems for the person, and for other people around them. In the United States, the United Kingdom, and many other countries, personality disorders are classed as a kind of mental disorder and are treated by medical professionals. About ten percent of adults have PDs. They are often caused by child abuse and trauma.
In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a book about mental illness written by the American Psychiatric Association, there are ten personality disorders. They are split into three "clusters" or groups.
- Paranoid personality disorder: These people do not trust others. They believe that others are trying to ruin their life.
- Schizoid personality disorder: These people like to stay alone. They do not enjoy most things and do not show much emotion.
- Schizotypal personality disorder: These people have weird beliefs and are very afraid of other people.
Cluster A disorders are more common in men.[source?]
- Antisocial personality disorder: These people tend to bully others. They do not care about people or the law. Around three percent of men and one percent of women have ASPD. It is the most common PD in men.
- Borderline personality disorder: These people have unstable relationships, self-image and moods. They are very impulsive. Around one percent of men and three percent of women have BPD.
- Histrionic personality disorder: These people are very emotional and need to be the center of attention. They are flirtatious and seductive. Around one percent of men and four percent of women have HPD. It is the most common PD in women.
- Narcissistic personality disorder: These people think that they are better than other people. They boast about themselves and need other people to look up to them. They use other people to achieve their goals. Around one percent of people have NPD; it is more common in men.
All Cluster B disorders are comorbid with each other. There are things that are in more than one PD. For example, selfishness and lack of empathy are major parts of ASPD and NPD. Needing to be admired is a major part of HPD and NPD.
- Avoidant personality disorder: These people avoid close relationships because they feel worse than other people. They have a high amount of social anxiety and feel terrible when criticized.
- Dependent personality disorder: These people really want other people to care for them. They often cannot make decisions on their own.
- Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: These people do not relax. They are often very busy.
The specific personality disorders are: paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, emotionally unstable (borderline type and impulsive type), histrionic, anankastic, anxious (avoidant) and dependent in the current version. The current version is the ICD-10.
- Lenzenweger, Mark F. (2008-09-01). "Epidemiology of Personality Disorders". Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Recent Research in Personality Disorders. 31 (3): 395–403. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2008.03.003. ISSN 0193-953X.
- Cohen, Patricia; Brown, Jocelyn; Smailes, Elizabeth (2001/12). "Child abuse and neglect and the development of mental disorders in the general population". Development and Psychopathology. 13 (4): 981–999. doi:10.1017/S0954579401004126. ISSN 1469-2198. Check date values in:
- Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5. Internet Archive. Arlington, VA : American Psychiatric Association. 2013. ISBN 978-0-89042-554-1.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Esterberg, Michelle L.; Goulding, Sandra M.; Walker, Elaine F. (2010-12-01). "A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence". Journal of psychopathology and behavioral assessment. 32 (4): 515–528. doi:10.1007/s10862-010-9183-8. ISSN 0882-2689. PMC 2992453. PMID 21116455.
- "ICD-10 Version:2010". icd.who.int. Retrieved 2021-01-22.