Schizophrenia (sz) is a kind of problem. Sz is a type of health problem. This problem is with someone's mind and their behavior.  That is what doctors say and think. The type of doctor is psychiatrist. Doctors think the problem is with the brain.
Psychology is known as the science of behaviors, and science of minds,  the problems of how to understand though what sz is is more a subject of psychiatry. Many or most psychiatrists mostly think sz is an illness. Some psychologists and psychiatrists in the past thought sz was not an illness 
Doctors learnt at their school change
Meanings of the word and word parts change
The word parts are schizo and phren and phrenia. Schizo means splitting. Phren means psyche and phrenia means psychic. The meaning only by joining the parts together is splitting of the psychic functions. Dr Eugen Bleuler invented the word. Dr. Bleulers word is neoclassical thought because it uses word parts from ancient Greek. The ancient Greek word phren (in ancient Greek this is: φρήν) meant "midriff (diaphragm), heart, mind, thought".
Dr Bleuler wrote a book about his invention.  In the book, the problem schizo of phrenia is the things patients said that the doctors heard which were ideas any patient had. The idea parts connect in a patient's mind with each other. All the connections of one idea make groups which are seperate. All the connections of ideas in any group of thought is complex. Healthy people also have these complex ideas groups, but in sz people the split between groups is "exaggerated". How the sz split happens is by the "associations" in a thought which joins to another thought in someone's mind "loosening".  If they join, is healthy, if they don't join, if they become loosened, they maybe could have sz. How one thought is thought after another is how they associate.  Association is like the a b c in the alphabet: a assocates with b (not with c), b assocates with c (not with a), the same to z.
In the past change
The things that happen with people to do with sz change
Most of the time, the problems of sz starts in the late teens or early 20s. It is a common problem. In 2022, about 24 million people worldwide had this problem. It affects about the same number of men and women. In men, it seems to start about five years earlier than in women.
The doctor's decision makes someone be with sz: the word doctors use is "diagnosis" change
Doctors know about someone by what they see, hear, and already know or then know by seeing or hearing, mostly, but also by smell. Nurses and social workers also maybe help a doctor to decide. The things they found, after making the decision of "sz", these things are: the symptoms.
- "Persistent delusions"  Someone has had thoughts and emotions. The thoughts thought are there to begin with because of something or things in the world including their own self. The thing or things in the world, and, or, self, go into this someone's mind from their eyes or ears, or mouth, or, skin: the senses, and, or, their self, and those things or thing become the subject of their thoughts and also emotion(s). This someone is thinking in their minds and the thoughts have the emotion firstly of not knowing. The thoughts and emotions on the subject happen for a while and after a while stop by believing something, a conclusion of all the thoughts. When this same someone meets a doctor the belief is thought by the doctor as being about a false reality or an impossible reality. The doctor knows about these thoughts from this same someone's speaking. The doctor does not agree with the thoughts of the conclusion. The doctor thinks those thoughts of the conclusion are a problem. The doctor would like to change the belief, but the patient won't or can't. The problem is named a delusion. 
- "Persistent hallucinations"  is the perception of things that psychiatric doctors think don't exist in reality or any known or possible to know reality. Hallucinations are usually experiences of things that from the senses don't exist from the physical world. Feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, or tasting things that aren't there or anywhere.
- "Thought disorder":  someone speaks: the words in the speaking doesn't arrive at the doctor in an order which means enough or something. The doctor thinks the same someone is thinking like they are speaking. If 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 is like the words in a spoken sentence, the number could be more or less than 10, the fact of consecutive is the order. Disorder is like the words are not consecutive. Or some of the numbers aren't included in the sentence. This is known as "disorganized speech or thought"
- Thinks or feels controlled and passive
Persistent means that from the first time a doctor has found a symptom the amount of time if there is a next time or times after, is not a very brief time.
- Psychotic: These symptoms are delusion, hallucination, disorganisation
- Negative: are less of or not having any of: thoughts, behaviors or emotions that someone who is healthy usually has. 
- Cognitive (or cognitive deficits): are problems with attention, memory, the concept of time, and with the ability to plan and organize.
Doctors use the word insight to make the meaning of having intelligence and understanding change
Some people think they don't have sz, when a doctor tells them they do. The difference is the intelligence of the people and the doctors.
The word insight means to have a true and real understanding of a problem or situation.
What people do to help people with sz and what people could do to stop themselves from having/being sz change
Things in life which make or maybe make sz change
Cause is like the arrow from right to left: does have sz ← does not have sz.
- Or the same arrow in: (because cannot work) has zero money ← has $.
- Is a hero  (S)  → is a zero. 
- Playing a game (any game): Winning → 1 / → 0.
Doctors think the cause is a mixture of certain very small parts of the human body known as genes that some people have, with certain things which have happened to people. How sz happens in the first place for all of the any one individuals with sz though doctors don't really know. 
Society and culture change
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the study of human (and animal) behavior, and the thoughts and emotions that influence behaviour.
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concerned with behavior, in both human and nonhuman animals
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the way the human mind works and how it influences behaviour, or the influence of a particular person's character on their behaviour
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studies mental states and processes and behaviour in humans and other animals.
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