Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

neurodevelopmental disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder. It affects how people think and act.

People with ADHD may have trouble sitting still, being quiet, or sleeping. They may be rather impulsive. They usually have problems focusing and remembering what is said or done around them. ADHD is called a neurological developmental disorder because it affects how people's nervous systems develop.[1][2]

Experts think that, throughout the world, about one in twenty children (5%) have ADHD. Some countries have more people with ADHD than others, and not everyone uses the same tests. Psychologists have found more people with ADHD in North America than in Africa and the Middle East.[3] In the United States, about one in every fourteen children has ADHD (7%), including one in every ten boys (10%) and one in every twenty-five girls (4%).[4] This could be because more boys get ADHD, or because fewer girls take ADHD tests.[5][6]

ADHD is most diagnosed in children and especially in boys.[7] However, it is not uncommon for teenagers or adults to be diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD has no cure which means it is permanent. However, people with ADHD can treat it which means to help them get better. The difference between a cure and treatment is a cure entirely removes a problem, while the treatment does not remove the problem but help make the symptoms go away as if you don't have ADHD.[8]

Signs and symptoms change

People with ADHD can have trouble paying attention, be overly active, or be impulsive. There are three types of ADHD, based on which of the three symptoms are most common.

Someone who usually has trouble paying attention may have some or all of these symptoms:[9]

  • They can get distracted easily when listening
  • They can have difficulty focusing
  • They can get bored after a few minutes unless it's something they enjoy
  • They can have difficulty when organizing or completing a task, homework, assignments, and by handing in tasks
  • They can often lose items or forget about them
  • They do not seem to listen when they are spoken to
  • They can daydream, become confused easily, and not move fast
  • They have difficulty taking information quickly or correctly
  • They seem to struggle when following instructions

Someone who usually is overly active may have some or all of these symptoms:[9]

  • They may move around a lot when sitting.
  • They may talk without stopping.
  • They may run around touching or playing with anything they see.
  • They may have trouble sitting without moving while trying to eat, do homework, or pay attention in class.
  • They may move constantly.
  • They may have trouble doing things quietly.
  • They may have tics (like Tourette syndrome) that are caused by panic or stress.

People who are overly active usually lose these symptoms as they get older.

Someone who usually is impulsive may have some or all of these symptoms:[9]

  • They may be very impatient.
  • They may say things that are not nice or correct or do things without thinking about what will happen.
  • They may have trouble waiting for things they want to have or do.
  • They may often interrupt other people.

People with ADHD may have trouble making and keeping friends. They may also have trouble controlling their anger. While children with ADHD may have trouble doing some things, many children with ADHD will not have trouble paying attention to something they enjoy or think is interesting.[10]

Most people who have ADHD also have other mental disorders, most often oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dyslexia, Tourette syndrome, anxiety disorders (especially obsessive-compulsive disorder), mood disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders and personality disorders (especially antisocial, borderline, histrionic, passive-aggressive and avoidant).

Cause change

It is believed that the main difference between neurotypical brains and the ones with ADHD is the deficit in the amount of dopamine receptors within the synapses in the brain. This deficit is said to be the main factor in regulating motivation and sustaining attention.

Research of twins has shown that about three in four cases of ADHD are caused by one or both parents having ADHD. Siblings of children with ADHD are three to four times more likely to develop the disorder than siblings of children without the disorder.[11] Genetic factors are also believed to be involved in determining whether ADHD lasts into adulthood.[12] Some scientists think that ADHD is common because when humans were first developing, it was good to be overly active. Others think that, because ADHD is more common in children when the mother is anxious, ADHD developed to help children in dangerous places.

There are other possible causes for ADHD. If a pregnant person drinks alcohol, it can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which can include ADHD.[13] ADHD can also happen if a mother smokes tobacco while she is pregnant. Lead, low birth weight, premature birth, and some infections can increase the risk of a child having ADHD.

Managing ADHD change

There is no cure for ADHD. People with ADHD can be helped with therapy or medication. Therapy is recommended for children who do not have bad symptoms or are very young. Therapy for people with ADHD helps with attention and behavior. There is also education for parents and teachers to help children with ADHD. Some physical exercise has been shown to help people with ADHD.[14]

Generally, its treatment is categorized into two categories i.e. pharmacological and nonpharmacological.[15] The first line treatment for ADHD includes cognitive behavioral therapy and use of stimulants. While cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) programs were once thought to be the solution for working with ADHD children and getting them to slow down and think, sadly, CBT programs have not been proven to be an efficient strategy for working with ADHD populations.[16]

Stimulants increase the amount of a chemical called dopamine in the brain, which helps with paying attention, planning, organization, and management of being overly active. These medications should not be given to children below the age of 6.

Society and culture change

People do not agree about the diagnosis of ADHD.[17] The number of people with ADHD has increased in the last several years. Some people think this is because doctors are diagnosing too many people. Others think it is because doctors are getting better at finding people with ADHD. Some people think that ADHD is made up and not a real illness, even though it's the most researched condition in psychiatry. Most studies suggest that ADHD is mostly caused by problems with genes.

Several famous people have spoken about the rise in ADHD diagnoses. Actor Tom Cruise said that the medicines usually given to people with ADHD were like illegal drugs.[18] Others disagreed with him because the amount of medicine given to people with ADHD does not cause addiction. There have been many studies about the effectiveness of the medicines used with ADHD. One certain study found that the medicine did help over a long time, but did not help more than other types of treatment.[19]

Further reading change

References change

  1. "LONI: Laboratory of Neuro Imaging". Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2008-08-24.
  2. NINDS Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Information Page. Archived 2016-12-02 at the Wayback Machine National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS/NIH) 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  3. Polanczyk G.; et al. (2007). "The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis". Am J Psychiatry. 164 (6): 942–48. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.6.942. PMID 17541055.
  4. "National Health Interview survey, 2002"PDF (3.71 MB). Centers for Disease Control, 2004. Retrieved on December 11, 2006.
  5. Staller J & Faraone SV. 2006. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in girls: epidemiology and management. CNS Drugs. 2006;20(2):107–23. PMID 16478287
  6. Biederman J & Faraone S.V. 2004. The Massachusetts General Hospital studies of gender influences on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in youth and relatives. Psychiatr Clin North Am. Jun;27(2):225–32. PMID 15063995
  7. "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Treatment in Children and Adolescents (A Systematic Review)". Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Treatment in Children and Adolescents (A Systematic Review) | PCORI. 2021-08-27. Retrieved 2023-04-21.
  8. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder: ADHD in Adults. Retrieved on December 11, 2006.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 59–65. ISBN 0890425558.
  10. Walitza, S; Drechsler, R; Ball, J (August 2012). "Das schulkind mit ADHS" [The school child with ADHD]. Ther Umsch (in German) 69 (8): 467–73. doi:10.1024/0040-5930/a000316. PMID 22851461.
  11. Nolen-Hoeksema S. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (6th ed.). p. 267. ISBN 9780078035388.
  12. Franke B. et al (2012). "The genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults, a review". Mol. Psychiatry 17 (10): 960–987. doi:10.1038/mp.2011.138. PMC 3449233. PMID 22105624.
  13. NIMH (2013), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Easy-to-Read), National Institute of Mental Health, retrieved 17 Apr 2016
  14. Kamp CF, Sperlich B, Holmberg HC (July 2014). "Exercise reduces the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and improves social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters". Acta Paediatr. 103 (7): 709–14. doi:10.1111/apa.12628. PMID 24612421. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  15. Wilmshurst, Linda (2017-03-03). Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology: A Developmental Perspective, Second Edition. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-33659-4.
  16. Abikoff, Howard; Ganeles, David; Reiter, Gail; Blum, Carol; Foley, Carmel; Klein, Rachel G. (1988-08-01). "Cognitive training in academically deficient ADDH boys receiving stimulant medication". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 16 (4): 411–432. doi:10.1007/BF00914172. ISSN 1573-2835. PMID 3221031. S2CID 30057134.
  17. Foreman DM (February 2006). "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: legal and ethical aspects". Archives of Disease in Childhood 91 (2): 192–194. doi:10.1136/adc.2004.064576. PMC 2082674. PMID 16428370.
  18. "A Couch Tom Cruise Won't Jump On". Washington Post. June 25, 2005. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  19. Singh A (25 February 2010). "BBC must broadcast apology over inaccurate Panorama programme". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  20. Report, Science World (28 February 2013). "Five Very Different and Major Psych Disorders Have Shared Genetics". Science World Report.