Philippe I, Duke of Orléans

French prince (1640-1701)

Monsieur Philippe I, Duke of Orléans (21 September 1640 – 9 June 1701), was the youngest son of Louis XIII of France and his queen consort Anne of Austria. His older brother was the famous Louis XIV, le roi soleil. He was known as Monsieur at his brother's court.

Philippe I
Duke of Orléans
Born(1640-09-21)21 September 1640
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Died9 June 1701(1701-06-09) (aged 60)
Château de Saint-Cloud, France
Burial21 June 1701
(m. 1661; died 1670)
Full name
Philippe de Bourbon
HouseBourbon (by birth)
Orléans (founder)
FatherLouis XIII of France
MotherAnne of Austria
SignaturePhilippe I's signature



Philippe was born at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Styled Duke of Anjou from birth, Philippe became Duke of Orléans upon the death of his uncle Gaston, Duke of Orléans. During the reign of his brother he was known simply as Monsieur. Openly homosexual, he married twice: firstly to Henrietta of England, Minette, sister of Charles II of England. During their marriage, Philippe met and began a relationship with the Chevalier de Lorraine who was the great love of Philippe's life, their long relationship beginning in 1668. After the alleged poisoning of Minette, Philippe married again in 1671 to Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Liselotte.

He was the founder of the House of Orléans, a cadet branch of the ruling House of Bourbon, and thus the direct ancestor of Louis Philippe I, who ruled France from 1830 till 1848 in the July Monarchy. Through the children of both of his marriages Philippe became an ancestor of most modern-day Roman Catholic royals, giving him the nickname of "the grandfather of Europe". Philippe's other legacies include his decisive victory at the Battle of Cassel in 1677. Through careful personal administration, Philippe greatly augmented his fortune and thus the fortune of the House of Orléans.

First marriage


Married Princess Henrietta of England, daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France, on 31 March 1661, at the Palais Royal. The couple had three children:

  1. Marie Louise d'Orléans (26 March 1662 – 12 February 1689) married Charles II of Spain, no children;
  2. Philippe Charles d'Orléans, Duke of Valois (16 July 1664 – 8 December 1666) died in infancy;
  3. Stillborn daughter (9 July 1665);
  4. Anne Marie d'Orléans (27 August 1669 – 26 August 1728) married Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and had children;

Second marriage


Married Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, daughter of Elector Palatine Charles I Louis and Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, on 16 November 1671 at Châlons. The couple had three children:

  1. Alexandre Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Valois (2 June 1673 – 16 March 1676) died in infancy;
  2. Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans, Regent of France (2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723) married Françoise Marie de Bourbon, Légitimée de France and had children;
  3. Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans (13 September 1676 – 24 December 1744) married Léopold of Lorraine, Duke of Lorraine and had children.

Titles, styles, honours and arms


Titles and styles