Pope Boniface IX
Pope and bishop of Rome from 1389 to 1404
|Papacy began||2 November 1389|
|Papacy ended||1 October 1404|
|Predecessor||Pope Urban VI|
|Successor||Pope Innocent VII|
|Birth name||Piero Tomacelli|
|Died||October 1, 1404|
|Other popes named Boniface|
Pope Boniface was involved in Italian and European political disputes.
- 1391 – University of Ferrara established
- 1392 – University of Efurt confirmed
- 1396 – Jubilee celebrated at Rome
- 1398 – University of Fermo established
Boniface canonized St. Birgitta of Sweden.
|Popes of the Western Schism|
- "List of Popes," Catholic Encyclopedia (2009); retrieved 2011-11-29.
- "Pope Boniface IX", Catholic Encyclopedia; retrieved 2011-11-29.
- Montor, Artaud de (1911). The lives and times of the Popes. [Vol. 8]. Catholic Publication Society of America. p. 85.
- Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. C. Knight. 1836. p. 154.
- Note on ordinal numbering: Popes Boniface VIII–IX are really the 7th and 8th popes with that name. This is because Boniface VII is now parsed as an antipope; but during the reign of Boniface VIII, this was not recognized. The "true" or actual eighth pope Boniface identified himself with the ordinal number IX. In other words, the numbering of popes after the 7th Boniface needs to be explained -- compare Popes Benedict XI–XVI.
- Motor, p. 87.
- Chisholm, Hugh (1910). The Encyclopedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Encyclopedia Britannica Company. p. 207.
- "Western Schism," Catholic Encyclopedia; retrieved 2011-11-29.
Media related to Bonifacius IX at Wikimedia Commons
- . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. Cite has empty unknown parameter:
- Catholic Hierarchy, Pope Boniface IX
- Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Tomacelli