|"Ramesses the Great"|
|Reign||1279–1213 BC (19th Dynasty)|
|Consort||Nefertari, Isetnofret, Maathorneferure, Meritamen, Bintanath, Nebettawy, Henutmire|
|Children||Amun-her-khepsef, Ramesses, Pareherwenemef, Khaemwaset, Merneptah, Meryatum, Bintanath, Meritamen, Nebettawy, Henuttawy (List of children of Ramesses II)|
|Born||c. 1303 BC|
|Died||1213 BC (aged approximately 90)|
|Monuments||Abu Simbel, Abydos, Ramesseum, Luxor, Karnak|
When he was 14, Ramesses was appointed successor by his father Seti I. He ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC.p165 This is a total of 66 years and 2 months. It is likely that he died in his 90th or 91st year. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings; his body was later moved to a royal cache (hidden wall slot) where it was discovered in 1881. It is now on display in the Cairo Museum.
The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and monuments. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and main base for his campaigns in Syria.
Campaigns & BattlesEdit
Early in his life, Ramesses went on campaigns to get land back from Nubian and Hittite hands, and to secure Egypt's borders. He also stopped Nubian revolts and ran a campaign in Libya. During Ramesses's reign, the Egyptian army may have included about 100,000 men, a force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence over neighbouring lands.
Battle against Sherden sea piratesEdit
In his second year, Ramesses defeated the Sherden sea pirates. They were causing problems along Egypt's Mediterranean coast by attacking cargo-laden vessels on the sea routes to Egypt.p250 Ramesses posted troops and ships at strategic points along the coast, and allowed the pirates to attack their prey. He then caught them by surprise in a sea battle, capturing them all in a single action.p53 A stele says they came "in their war-ships from the midst of the sea, and none were able to stand before them". Shortly afterwards Sherden are seen in the Pharaoh's body-guard with their horned helmets, round shields and the great Naue II swords.
Peace treaty with the HittitesEdit
This caused a crisis between Egypt and Hatti, when Ramesses said he did not know where Mursili was. The two empires came close to war. Eventually, in the twenty-first year of his reign (1258 BC), Ramesses decided to make an agreement with Hattusili III, to end the conflict. The document they agreed is the earliest known peace treaty in world history.p256
The peace treaty was recorded in two different versions, one in Egyptian hieroglyphs, the other in Akkadian, using cuneiform script; both versions survive. Such dual-language recording is common to many treaties. This treaty differs from others in that the two language versions are differently worded. Although the majority of the text is identical, the Hittite version claims that the Egyptians came suing for peace, while the Egyptian version claims the reverse.p73–79; 62–64 The treaty was given to the Egyptians in the form of a silver plaque. This 'pocket-book' version was taken back to Egypt, and a copy carved into the Temple of Karnak.
Tomb of NefertariEdit
The most important and famous of Ramesses' Queen consorts was discovered in 1904. The tomb of Nefertari is extremely important, because its magnificent wall painting is regarded as one of the greatest examples of ancient Egyptian art.
A flight of steps cut out of the rock makes it possible to go to the antechamber. This is decorated with paintings based on chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead. The astronomical ceiling represents the heavens and is painted in dark blue, with many golden five-pointed stars. The east wall of the antechamber is interrupted by a large opening with paintings of Osiris and Anubis. This leads to the side chamber, decorated with offering scenes. A vestibule with paintings shows Nefertari being presented to the gods, who welcome her. On the north wall of the antechamber is the stairway that goes down to the burial chamber. This is a vast quadrangular room covering a surface area of about 90 square metres (970 sq ft), the astronomical ceiling of which is supported by four pillars entirely covered with decoration.
Death & AftermathEdit
Ramesses’ mummy has been extensively studied ever since it was discovered and preserved in a museum. His mummy reveals that he had dental problems, severe arthritis, and artery hardening before dying of either old age or heart failure. Ramesses was buried in the Valley of the Kings, and like Queen Nefertari, Ramesses had a magnificent burial chamber.
Egypt's power peaked during Ramesses the Great's reign. Several challenges arose following his death. Members of the ruling dynasty were at odds with one another. Furthermore, a group known as the Sea Peoples repeatedly invaded Egypt. The Sea Peoples fought a long war that left Egypt's civilization weak and unsteady even though they never succeeded in conquering Egypt.
- Clayton 1994, p. 146.
- Tyldesly 2001, p. xxiv.
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- also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses *Riʕmīsisu; also known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources
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- "How did Ramses II die?". Retrieved January 28, 2023.
- "How was Pharaoh Ramses II able to live so exceptionally long (up to age 90) and reign so successfully for 66 years?". Retrieved January 28, 2023.
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