staple grain of Oryza and Zizania species

Rice (Oryza sativa) is a type of cereal and food. In origin, it is a swamp grass. It is eaten as staple food in many parts of Asia. It is grown in warm parts of the world, mainly Asia, Africa, northern Italy, and the west coast of North America.

Oryza sativa
Scientific classification
Rice can come in many shapes, colours and sizes
Iranian rice.

Rice accounts for 80% of the calories eaten in Asia, or one-fifth of the calories eaten worldwide by humans.[1] It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production (rice, 741.5 million tonnes in 2014), after sugarcane (1.9 billion tonnes) and maize (1.0 billion tonnes).[2] However, judged by value, the world trade in wheat is greater than all other crops combined.[3] All these cereals are grasses.

Rice used to be the main diet in many countries. Various kinds of food processing prepare rice for eating. It is usually cooked. In some areas, such as Spain, rice is first fried in olive oil or butter, then cooked with water or soup. In other areas, such as India, rice is eaten with sauce, curry, or soup. Rice can also be used to make alcohol, such as Japanese sake rice wine.

Rice is believed to have been first grown in ancient southern China and India around 2500 BC. Rice-growing was brought to Japan possibly in the 1st century BC, and became popular during the 2nd century and the 3rd century. From India, rice spread to southern Europe and Africa.

Iran is also a producer of rice in Asia with a production of 2.4 MMT. The food consumption pattern of people in Iran shows that Iranians consume an average of 100 g of rice per day. Rice is the second most popular and favorite food in Iran after bread.

Rice is usually planted in a flat field filled with water. Before cropping, the water is drained from the field. Before farmers developed a good farming system and fertilizers, they used to let lands rest for 1 to 2 years while farming in other lands.

In some hot areas, close to the equator, farmers do double-cropping which means raising two crops in one year.

Rice contains a lot of carbohydrates. There are different ways of milling rice. Brown rice has only had the outer layer removed. It contains more fibre than the completely milled white rice.

Rice varieties


There are several grains called "rice": they have been cultivated for thousands of years.[4] There are a huge number of varieties.

Asian rice (Oryza sativa) is most widely known and most widely grown, with two major subspecies and over 40,000 varieties.[5] Also notable are varieties of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and wild rice (genus Zizania). Rice may vary in genetics, grain length, color, thickness, stickiness, aroma, growing method, and other characteristics.

Rice can be divided into different categories on the basis of each of its major characteristics. The two subspecies of Asian rice, indica and japonica have different length and stickiness. Indica rice is long-grained and unsticky, while japonica is short-grained and sticky.[6]

For instance, over nine major varieties of rice exist for the purpose of making sake alone.[7]

A naturally occurring strain of rice, IR8, is believed to have saved many lives.[8]

"In the 1950s... you only needed to plot population growth against rice production to see that, within a few years, there would not be enough to go around. Something needed to be done, and in 1960 two American charities, the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, joined forces to found the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines.
The new team began patiently cross-breeding the 10,000 different varieties they had collected.[8]
"Most crosses between rice strains give only 1% or 2% improvements, [but] IR8 was different. It married a tall high-yielding strain from Indonesia (PETA) with a sturdy dwarf variety from China (DGWG). The results were astounding.
There was never any instance in the history of the world where rice yields doubled in one step... In fact, according to some studies, IR8 yields in best conditions could be as much as 10 times that of traditional varieties".[8]

The new strain, part of the Green Revolution, had defects. It lacked taste, and the team spent 20 years improving its quality, and its resistance to fungi and pests. The team's later work was to reduce its bad effect on diabetes type 2 and on its vitamin A content.[8]

The countries that exported most rice (2022)


In 2022, the countries that exported most rice, were

  • India
  • Thailand[9]
  • Vietnam
  • Pakistan[10]


  1. Smith, Bruce D. 1998. The emergence of agriculture. NY: Scientific American Library. ISBN 0-7167-6030-4
  2. UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2017. [1]
  3. Curtis; Rajaraman; MacPherson (2002). "Bread Wheat". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [2]
  4. "History of rice cultivation - Ricepedia". Ricepedia. Archived from the original on 2018-03-17. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  5. "Varieties - Rice Association". www.riceassociation.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2018-08-02. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  6. "The two main types of rice: INDICA RICE and JAPONICA RICE". LEGroup Industries - RICE - TUNA - CHEESE - JAMS. 2017-10-09. Archived from the original on 2018-03-26. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  7. "Sake - types of rice used in brewing japanese rice wine". www.esake.com. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Rowlatt, Justin 2016. BBC News. IR8: The miracle rice which saved millions of lives. [3]
  9. https://www.bangkokpost.com/business/general/2622211/possible-thai-rice-curbs-rattle-world-market. Bangkok Post.com. Retrieved 2023-08-02
  10. https://www.worldstopexports.com/rice-exports-country/. Retrieved 2023-08-02

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