Russo-Japanese War

conflict between the Russian and Japanese empires from 1904 to 1905

The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) (Russian : Русско-Яионская Война) (Japanese : 日露践祚) (Chinese : 日俄战争) (Korean : 러일전쟁) between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire,between 1904 and 1905 . The Soviet-Japanese Border Conflicts (1932-1939) and the Soviet-Japanese War (1945) was fought between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan between 1932 and 1945 . The Japanese won the war in 1905, and the Russians lost.

Russo-Japanese War
RUSSOJAPANESEWARIMAGE.jpg
Date8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905 (Russo-Japanese War)

1 March 1932-16 September 1939 (Soviet-Japanese Border War : 1932-1939)

9 August-3 September 1945 (Soviet-Japanese War : 1945)
Location
Result Japanese victory; Treaty of Portsmouth
Belligerents
 Russian Empire,(1721-1917) and Soviet Union (1922-1991)  Empire of Japan (1868-1947)
Commanders and leaders
Russian Empire Tsar Nicholas II (leader : 1894-1917)
Russian Empire Aleksey Kuropatkin
Russian Empire Stepan Makarov 
Russian Empire Zinovy Rozhestvensky Joseph Stalin (leader : 1924-1953)
Empire of Japan Emperor Meiji (Emperor 1868-1912)
Empire of Japan Ōyama Iwao
Empire of Japan Nogi Maresuke
Empire of Japan Tōgō Heihachirō Emperor Hirohito (Emperor 1926-1989)
Strength
1,365,000[source?] 1,200,000[source?]
Casualties and losses
34,000 – 52,623 killed and died of wounds
9,300 – 18,830 died of disease
overall 43,300 – 71,453[1][2]
47,400 – 47,152 killed
11,424 – 11,500 died of wounds
21,802 – 27,200 died of disease
overall 80,378 – 86,100[1][2]

The war happened because the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan disagreed over who should get parts of Manchuria and Korea. The war was fought mostly on the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden, the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea. The politics of both countries in the war were very complicated, but both wanted to gain land and economic benefits.

The Chinese Empire of the Qing Dynasty was large but weak, and it was Qing land and possessions that were fought over. For example, Korea had been under Qing rule but was seized by Japan. Russia wanted a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for its navy and trade. The harbour at Vladivostok freezes over in the winter, but Port Arthur (now part of Dalian on the Liaodong Peninsula in China) can be used all year round. Russia had already rented the port from the Qing and had got permission to build a Trans-Siberian railway from St Petersburg to Port Arthur.

CausesEdit

Russia wanted a warm-water Pacific Ocean port for trade and its navy. Japan wanted to expand her empire into Korea and China. Japan thought that when Russia completed its railway in 1906, it would be able to beat Japan in a war by being able to supply large numbers of troops there.

To avoid war, Japan wanted to compromise with Russia even if it got the better deal. Japan wanted a more of Korea and China than it thought Russia would offer. Japan decided to attack before the railway was complete so that it could do well in a war against Russia.

The war started with a Japanese surprise attack on Port Arthur and continued with Japanese victories in Manchuria and elsewhere. The last major battle was at Tsushima Strait and destroyed the Russian Navy.

Peace treaty and aftermathEdit

US President Theodore Roosevelt helped Russia and Japan make peace after the war. That made him win a Nobel Prize. Russia had to give up all influence in the Far East. The Russian people were very angry at the government and at Tsar Nicholas II for not continuing the war because everyone was sure that Russia could have won. That is true because Japan was bankrupt and would have suffered an economic crisis after just a few more months of fighting. Russia's army was also much stronger than Japan's and had very large reserves to replace the soldiers she lost. However, Japan had no men with military training to replace its losses and no money to give new men training.

The Japanese got Port Arthur and the Russian railway in Manchuria. Five years later, in 1910, Japan took over Korea.[3] Japan would continue to grow its empire in Asia until World War II. The Russian defeat was one of the reasons for the Russian Army's great improvement after 1904, which helped start the European arms race that was a cause of World War I. The war also contributed to the Russian Revolution and to the Russian Civil War in 1917. Vladimir Lenin, who helped start the revolution, wanted Russia to lose the war since that showed that the tsar was losing power.[4]

Later warsEdit

However on 1 March 1932 just 27 year's after the Russo-Japanese War and 20 year's after the Qing dynasty became the Republic of China and 15 year's after the Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War of 1917 and 14 year's after World War I ended in 1918 during the Interwar period Of 1918-1939 the Soviet Union and Mongolia had a border conflict/border war with the Empire Of Japan,Manchukuo and Japanese Korea from 1932-1939 won by the Soviet's and Mongolians with the help of Planes and Tanks the Japanese also had a large number of Planes and Tanks and the Conflict ended in a humiliated defeat for the Japanese Empire and it’s Colonies,Korea and Manchukuo . In 1945 at the end of World War 2 just 40 year’s after the Russo-Japanese War and 6 year’s after the Battle of Khalkhin Gol (1939) the Soviet Union and Mongolia fought against Japan and invaded Manchuria,South Sakhalin and Korea it was known as the Soviet-Japanese War of 1945 . Today the Soviet-Japanese Border Conflicts Of 1932-1939 and the Soviet-Japanese War Of 1945 are both forgotten today ever since.

In 1932 just 27 year’s after the Russo-Japanese War and 15 year’s after the Russian Revolution lead by Lenin in 1917 . and 14 year’s after the execution of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia in 1918 . From the 1 March 1932-16 September 1939 during the Interwar period From 1918-1939 the Empire Of Japan (lead by Hirohito) and the puppet state of Manchukuo (lead by former Qing Emperor Puyi) fought a undeclared border war between the Soviet Union (lead by Joseph Stalin) and the Mongolian People’s Republic (lead by Khorlooginn Choibalsan) over a border between Mongolia and Manchuria in North East Asia known as the Soviet-Japanese Border Conflict (Russian : Советско-Японские Пограничные Конфлкты : 1932-1939) . On 11 May 1939 a Mongolian Cavalry wondered over the border in Manchukuo to grace there horse's on however this caused the Japanese to chase of the intruder’s and this lead to the Battle of Khalkhin Gol (1939) which lasted until 16 September 1939 (today a forgotten battle) . On the 9 August 1945 the Soviet Union invaded Manchuria (Today Part Of China),Japanese Korea (Today North Korea and South Korea) and Sakhalin . Japan surrendered on the 3 September 1945 on the last day of World War II during the Soviet-Japanese War (1945) (Russian : Советско-Японская Война : 1945) the Soviet's give Manchuria back to China in 1946 when the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1945 until it ended in 1949 when Chiang Kai-shek fled and retreated to Taiwan when Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin defeat him in 1949 . Today the Russo-Japanese War Of 1904-1905 is well remembered while the Soviet-Japanese War’s of 1932-1939 and 1945 were forgotten .

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Samuel Dumas, Losses of Life Caused By War (1923)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Erols.com, Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides.
  3. Paine, Sarah (2003). The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: Perceptions, Power, and Primacy. Cambridge University Press. p. 332.
  4. Krowner, Rotem (2006). The Impact of the Russo-Japanese War. Routledge. p. 211.

Further readingEdit