Definition change

Pneumonia, is an inflammatory condition of the lung. It is most often caused, by an infection from bacteria.[1][2]


Onset of illness change

Symptoms for pneumonia, typically include, cough, fatigue, chills, and shortness of breath. Each of the symptoms, occurs with different frequencies.[3]


Elderly change

In the elderly, confusion, may be the most prominent sign,[3] and fever, is less likely to be present.


Children Early Symptoms change

In children, under the age of five, fever, cough, and fast or difficult breathing, are the most common symptoms.[4]


Children Severe Pneumonia change

More severe signs, and symptoms, in children may include, blue-tinged skin, unwillingness to drink, convulsions, ongoing vomiting, extremes of temperature, or a decreased level of consciousness.[4][5]


Causes change

Pneumonia, fills the lung's alveoli with fluid, limiting how much oxygen, can be absorbed. The alveolus, on the left, is normal, whereas, the one on the right, is full of fluid from pneumonia.


Bacterial Pneumonia change

Pneumonia, is usually caused by infection from bacteria, or viruses. It is less commonly caused by other microorganisms, certain medications, and conditions, such as autoimmune diseases.[1][6]


Risk factors change

Risk factors for pneumonia, include smoking, a poor ability to cough, (such as after a stroke or surgery), and other lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis,, COPD,, and asthma.[7]


Diagnosis change

Diagnosis, is often based on symptoms, and physical examination alone.[8]


Diagnosis - Other Methods change

Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum, may help confirm the diagnosis.[8]


Classification change

Where, and how a pneumonia was acquired, can have a profound impact on survival. Examples are, community-acquired, or hospital-acquired pneumonia. [9]


Prevention change

Because, most pneumonias, are acquired from someone else that is infected, handwashing, and wearing surgical masks around the sick, are the most important preventative steps[10].

Vaccine change

Vaccines, to prevent certain types of pneumonia, are available.[11]


Other Methods change

Other methods of prevention, include smoking cessation, and treating underlying illnesses, (such as diabetes and HIV), properly.[11]


Treatment change

Antibiotics by mouth, rest, and simple analgesics and fluids, are usually enough, to treat uncomplicated pneumonia.[12]


Children change

In children, those with respiratory distress, should be hospitalized.[13]

Prognosis change

With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia, will stabilize in 3–6 days.[14] It often takes a few weeks before most symptoms resolve.[14].


Severe pneumonia change

If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized, [15] and oxygen therapy may be necessary.[16]


References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 McLuckie, A., ed. (2009). Respiratory disease and its management. New York: Springer. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-84882-094-4.
  2. Leach, Richard E. (2009). Acute and Critical Care Medicine at a Glance (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-6139-8.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Hoare Z, Lim WS (May 2006). "Pneumonia: update on diagnosis and management" (PDF). BMJ. 332 (7549): 1077–79. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7549.1077. PMC 1458569. PMID 16675815.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Singh V, Aneja S (March 2011). "Pneumonia – management in the developing world". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. 12 (1): 52–59. doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2010.09.011. PMID 21172676.
  5. Nair GB, Niederman MS (November 2011). "Community-acquired pneumonia: an unfinished battle". The Medical Clinics of North America. 95 (6): 1143–61. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2011.08.007. PMID 22032432.
  6. Jeffrey C. Pommerville (2010). Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology (9th ed.). Sudbury MA: Jones & Bartlett. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-7637-6258-2.
  7. "Who Is at Risk for Pneumonia?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "How Is Pneumonia Diagnosed?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  9. "Types of Pneumonia". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  10. "Pneumonia (Fact sheet N°331)". World Health Organization. August 2012. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  12. Lim WS, Baudouin SV, George RC, Hill AT, Jamieson C, Le Jeune I, Macfarlane JT, Read RC, Roberts HJ, Levy ML, Wani M, Woodhead MA (October 2009). "BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009". Thorax. 64 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): iii–155. doi:10.1136/thx.2009.121434. PMID 19783532.
  13. Bradley JS, Byington CL, Shah SS, Alverson B, Carter ER, Harrison C, Kaplan SL, Mace SE, McCracken GH, Moore MR, St Peter SD, Stockwell JA, Swanson JT (October 2011). "The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 53 (7): e25–76. doi:10.1093/cid/cir531. PMID 21880587.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Behera, D. (2010). Textbook of pulmonary medicine (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub. pp. 296–97. ISBN 978-81-8448-749-7.
  15. "What Is Pneumonia?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  16. "How Is Pneumonia Treated?". NHLBI. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.