Wildlife management

management and control of wildlife populations

Wildlife management is a general term for the process of keeping wild species at desirable levels as determined by wildlife managers. Wildlife management can include game keeping, wildlife conservation and pest control. Wildlife management has become an integrated science using disciplines such as mathematics, chemistry, biology, ecology, climatology and geography to gain the best results.[1]

Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia.

Wildlife conservation aims to halt the loss of species.[2][3] It does this by taking using ecological principles to balance the needs of wildlife with the needs of people.[4][5][6][7] Most wildlife is concerned with the preservation and improvement of habitats. Techniques can include reforestation, pest control, irrigation, coppicing and hedge laying.

Game keeping is the management or control of wildlife for the wellbeing of game birds. It may include killing other animals which share the same niche or predators to maintain a high population of the more profitable species, such as pheasants introduced into woodland. In his 1933 book Game Management, Aldo Leopold, one of the pioneers of wildlife management as a science, defined it as "the art of making land produce sustained annual crops of wild game for recreational use".


  1. Potter, Dale R.; Kathryn M. Sharpe, John C. Hendee (1973). Human Behavior Aspects of Fish and Wildlife Conservation - An Annotated Bibliography (PDF). U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. p. 290.
  2. M.E. Soulé and B.A. Wilcox (1980). Conservation biology: an evolutionary-ecological perspective. Sinauer Associatess. Sunderland, Massachusetts.
  3. M.E. Soule (1986). "What is conservation biology?" BioScience, 35(11): 727-734. [1] Archived 2019-04-12 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Soule, Michael E. (1986). Conservation Biology: The science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates. p. 584. ISBN 0878937951. ISBN 978-0-87893-795-0 (hardcover).
  5. Hunter, M. L. (1996). Fundamentals of conservation biology. Blackwell Science Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts., ISBN 0-86542-371-7.
  6. Groom, M.J., Meffe, G.K. and Carroll, C.R. (2006) Principles of conservation biology. (3rd ed). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. ISBN 0-87893-518-5
  7. van Dyke, Fred (2008). Conservation biology: foundations, concepts, applications. 2nd ed (hardcover ed.). Springer Verlag. pp. 478. ISBN 978-1-4020-6890-4.