|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1610s 1620s 1630s – 1640s – 1650s 1660s 1670s|
|Years:||1641 1642 1643 – 1644 – 1645 1646 1647|
- February to August – Explorer Abel Tasman's second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia.
- April – A popular Chinese Uprising led by Li Zicheng enter and conquer Beijing, prompting Chongzhen, the last emperor of the Ming Dynasty, to commit suicide.
- June 6 – The invading Manchu army, with the help of Ming general Wu Sangui, captures Beijing, China. This marks the beginning of the Qing Dynasty (also known as the Manchu Dynasty), the last imperial dynasty of China.
- July 2 – Battle of Marston Moor, a crushing victory for the Parliamentary side of the English Civil War, ends Charles I's hold on the north of England.
- September 1 – Battle of Tippermuir, Montrose defeats Elcho's Covenanters, reviving Royalist cause in Scotland
- September 2 – Second Battle of Lostwithiel, the last major victory for Charles I and the Royalist side in the English Civil War.
- September 15 – Pope Innocent X is elected to the Papacy, in Rome.
- November 23 – Areopagitica by John Milton is published.
- December – Plague breaks out in Edinburgh.