|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1720s 1730s 1740s – 1750s – 1760s 1770s 1780s|
|Years:||1754 1755 1756 – 1757 – 1758 1759 1760|
- January 2 – The United Kingdom captures Calcutta, India.
- March 14 – On board the HMS Monarch, Royal Navy Admiral John Byng is executed by firing squad for breach of the Articles of War.
- May 6 – Battle of Prague – Frederick the Great defeats an Austrian army and begins to besiege the city.
- June 18 – Battle of Kolin – Frederick is defeated by an Austrian army under Marshal Daun, forcing him to evacuate Bohemia.
- June 23 – Battle of Plassey – 3000 British troops under Robert Clive defeat a 50,000 strong Indian army under Siraj-ud-Dawlah at Plassey.
- July 26 – Battle of Hastenbeck – An Anglo-Hanoverian army under the Duke of Cumberland is defeated by the French under Louis d'Estrées and forced out of Hanover.
- July 30 – Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf – A Prussian army under Hans von Lehwald is defeated by the Russian army of Marshal Stepan Apraksin.
- October 16 – Austrian raiders plunder Berlin.
- October 30 – Osman III dies and is succeeded as Ottoman Sultan by Mustafa III.
- November 5 – Battle of Rossbach. Frederick defeats the French-Imperial army under the Duc de Soubise and Prince Joseph of Saxe-Hildburghausen, forcing the French to withdraw from Saxony.
- November 22 – Battle of Breslau – An Austrian army under Prince Charles of Lorraine defeats the Prussian army of Wilhelm of Brunswick-Bevern and forces the Austrians behind the Oder.
- December 6 – Battle of Leuthen – Frederick defeats Prince Charles's Austrian army.