|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1750s 1760s 1770s – 1780s – 1790s 1800s 1810s|
|Years:||1780 1781 1782 – 1783 – 1784 1785 1786|
- February 3 – American Revolutionary War: Spain recognizes United States independence.
- February 4 – American Revolutionary War: Great Britain formally declares that it will cease hostilities with the United States of America.
- February 4 – Earthquake in Calabria, Italy – 50.000 dead
- March 5 – Last celebration of Massacre Day.
- May 18 – Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada– First United Empire Loyalists reach Parrtown.
- June 5 – The Montgolfier brothers publicly demonstrate their montgolfière (hot air balloon) in Annonay, France.
- June 8 – The volcano Laki, in Iceland, begins an eight-month eruption which kills 9350 people and starts a seven-year famine. Eruption causes deaths of livestock when they eat contaminated grass and also widespread crop failure.
- July 16 – Grants of land in Canada to American loyalists announced.
- August 5 – Mount Asama erupts, causing turmoil in Edo period Japan.
- September 3 – American Revolutionary War ends: Treaty of Paris – A treaty between the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain is signed in Paris, ending the war.
- November 2 – In Rocky Hill, New Jersey, US General George Washington gives his "Farewell Address to the Army".
- November 21 – In Paris, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent, marquis d'Arlandes, make the first untethered hot air balloon flight (flight time: 25 minutes, Maximum height: 5* miles).
- November 25 – American Revolutionary War: The last British troops leave New York City three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
- December 4 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, US General George Washington formally bids his officers farewell.
- January 23 – Stendhal, French writer (d. 1842)
- March 8 – Hannah Van Buren, First Lady of the United States (d. 1819)
- April 3 – Washington Irving, American writer (d. 1859)
- April 10 – Hortense de Beauharnais, Queen of Holland and mother of Napoleon III of France (d. 1837)
- July 24 – Simón Bolívar, Venezuelan patriot, revolutionary leader and statesman (d. 1830).
- September 17 – Samuel Prout, English painter (d. 1852)