|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||2nd century BC – 1st century BC – 1st century|
|Decades:||80s BC 70s BC 60s BC – 50s BC – 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC|
|Years:||59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture|
Establishments – Disestablishments
- Julius Caesar, Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus make the First Triumvirate (ca. 59–53 BC).
- Gallic Wars: Julius Caesar conquers much of Gaul, and leads two journeys to Britain (58–49 BC).
- Bak Hyeokgeose makes the kingdom of Silla in Korea (57 BC)
- Pompey builds Rome's first permanent (made to stay the same for a long time) theatre (54 BC)
- Battle of Carrhae: the Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus tries to attack the Parthian Empire. Surenais defeats him at Carrhae, now Harran in Turkey; Crassus dies. (53 BC).
- Battle of Alesia: Vercingetorix leads a rebellion by the Gauls. Julius Caesar defeats him. (52 BC).
- Julius Caesar, Roman politician and general (lived 100–44 BC)
- Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt (lived 70/69 – 30 BC, ruled 51–30 BC).
- Pompey, Roman general (lived 106–48 BC)
- Marcus Licinius Crassus, Roman politician and general (lived 115–53 BC)
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman politician (lived 106–43 BC)
- Vercingetorix, ruler of the Arverni (died. 46 BC)
- Cassivellaunus, British war-leader
- Ariovistus, German king
- Commius, Gaulish king
- Phraates III, King of Parthia (ruled 70–57 BC)
- Mithridates III, king of Parthia and Media (ruled 57–54 BC)
- Orodes II, king of Parthia (ruled 57–38 BC)
- Surena, Parthian general (lived 84–54 BC)
- Bak Hyeokgeose, king of Silla in Korea
- Livy, Roman historian (ca. 59 BC)
- Seneca the Elder, Roman orator (ca. 54 BC)
- Marcus Licinius Crassus, Roman politician and general (53 BC)
- Posidonius, Greek philosopher, astronomer, and geographer (51 BC)