Abdul Hamid II

34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1876 to 1909

Abdul Hamid II (21 September 1842 – 10 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.[1] He was the last sultan to have complete control over the Empire. He was responsible of the Hamidian massacres. Killing between 100.000 - 300.000 Armenians. He witnessed many revolutions and wars. Abdul Hamid II ruled from 1876 to 1909, until he was overthrown by a group of people calling themselves the "Young Turks". Abdul Hamid II was the last ruler who nearly had total authority. Meaning that his authority was hardly limited by policies or reforms such as a constitution.[2]

Abdul Hamid II
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Abdul Hamid II in the late 19th century as a Sultan.
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Reign31 August 1876 – 27 April 1909
Sword girding7 September 1876
PredecessorMurad V
SuccessorMehmed V
Born(1842-09-21)21 September 1842
Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Died10 February 1918(1918-02-10) (aged 75)
Beylerbeyi Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Sultan Mahmud II Tomb
Full name
Abdul Hamid bin Abdulmejid
عبد الحميد بن عبد المجيد
Royal houseHouse of Osman
FatherAbdulmejid I
MotherTirimüjgan Sultan
Rahime Perestu Sultan
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraAbdul Hamid II's signature

Rule change

He modernized the Ottoman Empire during his reign. Railways, schools and hospitals were built under his rule. He also seeked to unify the Muslims in the Empire under Pan-Islamism. Others had tried to unify people in the Empire under Ottomanism (identity based on shared belonging to the Ottoman Empire).

Sultan Abdul Hamid II was the one who authorized the building of the Hamidiye Mosque, which was finished in 1886.[3] The Mosque was built near the Yildiz Palace, and its decoration style combines the classical Ottoman with Neo-Gothic. It became a symbol for the ruler's authority.[2]

His reign ended as Young Turks revolted against him, effectively deposing him and putting their favored sultan, Mehmed V.

References change

  1. "Abdulhamid II". The Sultans. theottomans.org. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Clancy-Smith; Smith, Julia; Charles (2014). The Modern Middle East and North Africa: A history in documents. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9 7 8 0 1 9 5 3 3 8 2 7 0.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. Clancy-Smith, Julia A. (31 December 2019), "THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA IN WORLD HISTORY", The New World History, University of California Press, p. 1, retrieved 29 February 2024