Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II (21 September 1842 – 10 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was the last sultan to have complete control over the Empire. He was responsible of the Hamidian massacres. Killing between 100.000 - 300.000 Armenians. He witnessed many revolutions and wars. Abdul Hamid II ruled from 1876 to 1909, until he was overthrown by a group of people calling themselves the "Young Turks".
|Abdul Hamid II|
|Caliph of Islam|
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire|
|Reign||31 August 1876 – 27 April 1909|
|Sword girding||7 September 1876|
|Born||21 September 1842|
Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
|Died||10 February 1918 (aged 75)|
Beylerbeyi Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Sultan Mahmud II Tomb
|Royal house||House of Osman|
|Mother||• Tirimüjgan Sultan|
• Rahime Perestu Sultan
He modernized the Empire during his reign, by for example building many railways, schools and hospitals. He also seeked to unify the Muslims in the Empire under Pan-Islamism as opposed to others wanting to unify the Empire under Ottomanism which meant to unify both the Muslim and non-Muslim subjects of the empire.
Although the Empire was beginning to fall, he at least gave the Empire a lift in his reign.
- "Abdulhamid II". The Sultans. theottomans.org. Retrieved 22 February 2016.