Abdul Hamid II

Ottoman Empire Sultan from 1876 to 1909

Abdul Hamid II (21 September 1842 – 10 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.[1] He was the last sultan to have complete control over the Empire. He was responsible of the Hamidian massacres. Killing between 100.000 - 300.000 Armenians. He witnessed many revolutions and wars. Abdul Hamid II ruled from 1876 to 1909, until he was overthrown by a group of people calling themselves the "Young Turks".

Abdul Hamid II
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Sultan Abdulhamid.jpg
Abdülhamid II in the late 19th century as a Sultan.
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Reign31 August 1876 – 27 April 1909
Sword girding7 September 1876
PredecessorMurad V
SuccessorMehmed V
Born(1842-09-21)21 September 1842
Topkapı Palace, Istanbul
Died10 February 1918(1918-02-10) (aged 75)
Beylerbeyi Palace, Istanbul
Sultan Mahmud II Tomb
Royal houseHouse of Osman
FatherAbdülmecid I
MotherTirimüjgan Sultan
Rahime Perestu Sultan
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraAbdul Hamid II's signature

He modernized the Empire during his reign, by for example building many railways, schools and hospitals. He also seeked to unify the Muslims in the Empire under Pan-Islamism as opposed to others wanting to unify the Empire under Ottomanism.

Although the Empire was beginning to fall, he at least gave the Empire a lift in his reign.

His reign ended as Young Turks revolted against him, effectively deposing him and putting their favored sultan, Mehmed V.


  1. "Abdulhamid II". The Sultans. theottomans.org. Retrieved 22 February 2016.