Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American politician. He was a General in the War of 1812. He later became the seventh president of the United States of America. He was the first Democrat and is on the twenty dollar bill. His nickname was "Old Hickory". He forced many Native Americans to leave their homeland so white people could live there, and many died. This was called the Trail of Tears.
|7th President of the United States|
March 4, 1829 – March 3, 1837
|Vice President||John C. Calhoun (1829-1832) Martin Van Buren (1833-1837)|
|Preceded by||John Quincy Adams|
|Succeeded by||Martin Van Buren|
|Military Governor of Florida|
March 10, 1821 – December 31, 1821
|Appointed by||James Monroe|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||William Pope Duval|
|United States Senator|
March 4, 1823 – October 14, 1825
|Preceded by||John Williams|
|Succeeded by||Hugh Lawson White|
September 26, 1797 – April 1, 1798
|Preceded by||William Cocke|
|Succeeded by||Daniel Smith|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Tennessee's at-large district
December 4, 1796 – September 26, 1797
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||William Claiborne|
|Born||March 15, 1767|
Waxhaw settlements, Carolina, USA
|Died||June 8, 1845 (aged 78)|
Nashville, Tennessee, USA
|Spouse(s)||Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson (niece Emily Donelson Jackson and daughter-in-law Sarah Yorke Jackson were first ladies)|
As a boy Andrew Jackson was a messenger for the Continental Army. The British caught him and mistreated him.
He was the first U.S. president who was not born into a rich family. He was not a rich man and did not have a college education. He moved to Tennessee and became a politician.
During the War of 1812, he became a general and won the Battle of New Orleans which made him very famous. He joined the war because of childhood trauma that he had endured during the Revolutionary War; both his mother and his brother died during the war, and Jackson blamed the British and wanted to avenge his late loved ones.
In 1791, he fell in love with Rachel Donelson Robards. They went through a marriage ceremony. However, the marriage was not legal because she had not been granted a divorce from her first husband. Therefore, they married legally three years later. They had no children, but they adopted several. He became rich and owned a large plantation.
Andrew Jackson reorganized the Democratic Party and was its leader.
In 1828, he defeated John Quincy Adams in the Presidential Election of 1828, he became president on March 4, 1829, and four years later he was re-elected to a second term as president. In the Nullification Crisis of 1832-1833, South Carolina declared secession from the United States. Jackson threatened war, and then compromised.
During his presidency, he signed the Indian Removal Act which allowed the U.S. government to violently force the Native Americans to move from their land and go west. Many Native Americans were killed and the path they walked to get to the west was called the Trail of Tears.
Andrew Jackson was against the national bank of the United States because he felt that banks and their banknotes were for rich and powerful people and did not serve the interests of the common man. The national bank expired during Jackson's presidency. Jackson chose not to continue the bank.
On March 4, 1837, Andrew Jackson finished his second term. After that, vice-president Martin Van Buren was elected president and continued many of the things Jackson did. Jackson was a big influence on other Democrats during the 1800s.
Jackson's legacy among historians is mixed, going downhill, and heavily debated. Some have liked him because he was against aristocrats, bankers, businessmen, the British Empire, cities, and paper money, and in favor of ordinary country people. Some have disliked him for the same reasons and because he was in favor of war and against Indians.