Artificial intelligence

field of computer science that develops and studies intelligent machines

Artificial intelligence (AI or A.I.) is largely about a computer program or a machine, being able to do machine learning.[1] When one talks about artificial intelligence, then often it is about deep neural networks or deep learning.[2]

Artificial intelligence is a system's ability to correctly interpret external data, to learn from such data, and to use those learnings to achieve specific goals and tasks through adaptation; the adaptation has to be flexible. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein wrote that definition.[3]

Artificial intelligence is used a lot in language technology, speech recognition, image recognition, user interaction, and steering of physical processes, according to an encyclopedia.[2]

Origin of name change

John McCarthy came up with the name, "artificial intelligence", in 1955. Intelligence allows an organism to act in a meaningful way in its environment. It includes the ability to get sensory inputs, and to react to these.

Laws change

The European Union made a law (2024's second quarter) about artificial intelligence; It has been called the first law, of that kind (in the world).

Connecticut and Colorado are known for trying to pass laws (in 2024) regarding use of AI.[4]

History change

AI research started with a conference at Dartmouth College in 1956. It was a month-long brainstorming session attended by many people with interests in AI. At the conference they wrote programs that were amazing at the time, beating people at checkers or solving word problems. The Department of Defense started giving a lot of money to AI research, and labs were created all over the world.

In a paper on AI, mathematician James Lighthill stated that "no aspect of the discipline has so far seen discoveries generated the huge influence that was previously anticipated." The governments of the US and UK desired to support more profitable initiatives. An "AI winter" in which little research was conducted was brought on by cuts. [5] AI revived[needs to be explained] again in the 90s and early 2000s with its use in data mining and medical diagnosis. This was possible because of faster computers and focusing on solving more specific problems. In 1997, the chess computer Deep Blue became the first computer program to beat chess world champion Garry Kasparov. In 2011 IBM Watson beat the top two Jeopardy! players Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings, and in 2016 Google's AlphaGo beat top Go player Lee Sedol 4 out of 5 times.

The idea is perhaps much older. Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751) was a materialist thinker of the Enlightenment. In his work of 1748, L'Homme Machine, he had the idea that both matter and life organized themselves.[6] He is seen as one of the precursors of Darwin's theory of evolution.[7] Today, one field of artificial intelligence, called 'strong artificial intelligence' wants to build a machine that mimics human thought.[8] In contrast to this, weak artificial intelligence is about building a system that can support a human when taking certain decisions. One of the key problems is to make systems that can model uncertainity; most of the time, this is done with probability theory and statistics.

Uses of artificial intelligence change

Artificial intelligence is used in many different areas today. Some examples include:

  • Healthcare: AI helps doctors diagnose diseases and find treatments for patients.
  • Finance: Banks use AI to detect fraud.
  • Customer service: Many companies use AI chatbots to answer customer questions and provide support.
  • Personal assistants: AI assistants like Siri and Alexa help people manage their daily tasks.
  • Entertainment: AI is used in video games to create smart, responsive characters and stories that change in fun ways based on what the player does

One interesting use of AI is in helping people with their personal relationships. For example, ChatGPT, developed by OpenAI, is a powerful AI tool that can generate human-like text and assist in various communication tasks.

Domains of artificial intelligence change

There are different domains of artificial intelligence. Most of these are independent, and research in one domain rarely influences the other domains. Common domains are:

There is a domain of study called artificial life, which also influences artificial intelligence.

Types (and classes) of artificial intelligence change

Borrowing from the management literature, Kaplan and Haenlein classify artificial intelligence into three different types of AI systems,.[3]

  • Analytical A.I. has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence generating cognitive representation of the world and using learning based on past experience to inform future decisions.
  • Human-inspired A.I. has elements from cognitive as well as emotional intelligence, understanding, in addition to cognitive elements, also human emotions considering them in their decision making.
  • Humanized A.I. shows characteristics of all types of competencies (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and social intelligence), able to be self-conscious and self-aware in interactions with others.[9]

Artificial general intelligence (or AGI), is (a idea or) hypothetical technology.

Other information change

Researchers seriously undervalued how challenging several issues were. They still couldn't offer computers things like emotions or common sense using the techniques they had employed.

Faster computers, advances in deep learning, and access to more data have made AI popular throughout the world.[10]

A definition is that artificial intelligence is a programme which mimics human cognition.[11]

An ideal (perfect) intelligent machine is a flexible agent which perceives its environment and takes actions to maximize its chance of success at some goal or objective.[12]

At present we use the term AI for successfully decoding human speech,[11] competing at a high level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), self-driving cars, and interpreting complex data.[13]

An extreme goal of AI research is to create computer programs that can learn, solve problems, and think logically.[14][15] In practice, however, most applications have picked on problems which computers can do well. Searching databases and doing calculations are things computers do better than people. On the other hand, "perceiving its environment" in any real sense is way beyond present-day computing.

AI involves many different fields like computer science, mathematics, linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy. Eventually researchers hope to create a "general artificial intelligence" which can solve many problems instead of focusing on just one. Researchers are also trying to create creative and emotional AI which can possibly empathize or create art. Many approaches and tools have been tried.The term intelligence is misleading, here. Alan Turing wrote in 1950 "I propose to consider the question 'can machines think'?"[16] He proposed the question should be changed, from whether a machine "thinks", to "whether or not it is possible for machinery to show intelligent behaviour".[16] Alain Turing also created the Turing test. This is a very general test. If a human cannot tell if at the other end of the line, there is a machine or a human answering questions, the machine is intelligent.

The authors of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach agree with Turing that AI must be defined in terms of "acting" and not "thinking".[17] However, they are critical that the test compares machines to people. "Aeronautical engineering texts," they wrote, "do not define the goal of their field as making 'machines that fly so exactly like pigeons that they can fool other pigeons.'"[18] AI founder John McCarthy agreed, writing that "Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence".[19]

At least some of the things we associate with other minds, such as learning and problem solving can be done by computers, though not in the same way as we do.[11]

Artificial intelligence is the ability of a computer program or a machine to think and learn.[1]

Artificial intelligence is also about processing information and about storing knowledge. One of the goals of "artificial intelligence" is to make a machine that behaves in a similar way.

Artificial intelligence programs create questions or gather questions (from outside the program). If the program does not gather (or create) answers for questions, then the program is not artificial intelligence.

Some people also consider AI a danger to humanity if it continues to progress at its current pace.[20]

Related pages change

Books change

The two most widely used textbooks in 2023. (See the Open Syllabus).

  • Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter. (2021). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (4th ed.). Hoboken: Pearson. ISBN 978-0134610993. LCCN 20190474. Artificial Intelligence
  • Rich, Elaine; Knight, Kevin; Nair, Shivashankar B (2010). Artificial Intelligence (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill India. ISBN 978-0070087705.

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Andreas Kaplan, Artificial Intelligence, Business and Civilization: Our Fate Made in Machines, Routledge, 2022".
  2. 2.0 2.1 Retrieved 2024-05-05. "Det arbeides spesielt mye med kunstig intelligens innen språkteknologi, talegjenkjenning, bildegjenkjenning, brukerinteraksjon og styring av fysiske prosesser. Når det snakkes om kunstig intelligens, refereres det som regel til såkalt dype nevrale nettverk eller dyp læring."
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kaplan, Andreas; Haenlein, Michael (January 2019). "Siri, Siri, in my hand: Who's the fairest in the land? On the interpretations, illustrations, and implications of artificial intelligence". Business Horizons. 62 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2018.08.004. S2CID 158433736.
  4. Retrieved 2024-05-15
  5. Bolat, Sarkan. "AI Course". Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  6. La Mettrie: Réflexions philosophiques sur l’origine des animaux, 1749 (anonym)
  7. Michel Bottolier: Hommage : De La Mettrie à Darwin Volltext, 11. September 2009 auf Libres Penseurs de France
  8. Nils J. Nilsson: The Quest for Artificial Intelligence. A History of Ideas and Achievements. Cambridge University Press, New York 2009.
  9. "Artificial Intelligence: More Than a Natural Intelligence?". 16 November 2019.
  10. Kaplan, Andreas; Haenlein, Michael (2020). "Rulers of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of artificial intelligence". Business Horizons. 63: 37–50. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2019.09.003. S2CID 211456730.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Russell, Stuart J. & Norvig, Peter 2003. Artificial intelligence: a modern approach. 2nd ed, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-790395-2
  12. Hutter, Marcus 2005. Universal artificial intelligence. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-22139-5
  13. Nilsson, Nils 1998. Artificial intelligence: a new synthesis. Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN 978-1-55860-467-4
  14. Kurzweil, Ray 1999. The age of spiritual machines. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-88217-8.
  15. Kurzweil, Ray 2005. The singularity is near. Viking Press
  16. 16.0 16.1 Turing (1950), p. 1.
  17. Russell & Norvig (2021), chpt. 2.
  18. Russell & Norvig (2021), p. 3.
  19. Maker (2006).
  20. "Stephen Hawking believes AI could be mankind's last accomplishment". BetaNews. 21 October 2016.