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Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Italian politician and patriot

Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (10 August 1810 – 6 June 1861), better known as Cavour (Italian: [kaˈvur]), was an Italian politician and statesman. He was an important person in the movement toward the Italian unification.


Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Francesco Hayez 041.jpg
Portrait of Cavour by Francesco Hayez
1st Prime Minister of Italy
In office
23 March 1861 – 6 June 1861
MonarchVictor Emmanuel II
Preceded byNone
Succeeded byBettino Ricasoli
9th Prime Minister of Sardinia
In office
21 January 1860 – 23 March 1861
MonarchVictor Emmanuel II
Preceded byAlfonso Ferrero La Marmora
Succeeded byNone
Prime Minister of Piedmont
In office
4 November 1852 – 19 July 1859
MonarchVictor Emmanuel II
Preceded byMassimo D'Azeglio
Succeeded byAlfonso Ferrero La Marmora
Minister of Finances
In office
19 April 1851 – 11 May 1852
MonarchVictor Emmanuel II
Prime MinisterMassimo D'Azeglio
Preceded byGiovanni Nigra
Succeeded byLuigi Cibrario
Minister of Agriculture and Trade
In office
11 October 1850 – 11 May 1852
MonarchVictor Emmanuel II
Prime MinisterMassimo D'Azeglio
Preceded byPietro De Rossi di Santarosa
Succeeded byGiuseppe Natoli (1861)
Member of the Sardinian Chamber of Deputies
In office
30 June 1848 – 17 March 1861
ConstituencyTurin
Personal details
Born
Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso

(1810-08-10)10 August 1810
Turin, French Empire
Died6 June 1861(1861-06-06) (aged 50)
Turin, Kingdom of Italy
NationalityItalian
Political partyHistorical Right
Signature
[1][2][3]

Cavour was born in Turin during Napoleonic rule. Until 1831 he worked as a military officer.[4] Later he decided to travel in Europe to learn more about the effects of the industrial revolution. These trips helped him to know and understand the principles of the British Liberal system.

After four years, he returned to Piedmont. He took charge of agriculture and the economy in general. He worked for the spread of schools. During that time, his business and banking activities made him one of the richest men in the Piedmont.[5]

From 1832 to 1848, Cavour was the mayor of Grinzane (now called Grinzane Cavour to honor him).[6] In 1847, he founded the newspaper Il Risorgimento. According to him, the process of economic and social development - that he promoted in the previous years - could be implemented only after a deep restructuring of the political institutions.[5]

In 1850, Cavour became famous because he advocating the "Siccardi Law" that diminished the privileges of the Catholic clergy. In the same year, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia, Massimo D'Azeglio, chose him as Minister of Agriculture, Trade and Navy. Later he also became Minister of Finance. After D'Azeglio resigned on November 4, 1852, Cavour became Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia.[7]

Cavour's political program wanted to become the Kingdom of Sardinia a constitutional State based on moderate and progressive liberalism, so he dedicated himself to a radical renewal of the economy. He modernized and valorized agriculture, strengthened the industrial system and promoted trade with the major European powers.[8] However, his liberal program was criticized by both the "Historical Left" - that cared for the poorest citizens - both the "Historical Right", who considered him as a destroyer of conservative traditions.[5]

In 1858, he signed a treaty of alliance between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the French Empire against the Austrian Empire. In the following year, there was the Second Italian War of Independence. In that war, the Piedmontese and the French defeated the Austrians, who at the time held power in Italy.[7]

After the armistice of Villafranca and Giuseppe Garibaldi's expedition in the South (1860-1861), the unification of Italy was completed. Cavour became the first President of united Italy. He was also the first Minister of Foreign Affairs.[7] He was the leader of the Liberal parliamentary group. He died of an illness in Turin.[7]

ReferencesEdit

  • Beales, Derek & Eugenio Biagini. The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy. Second Edition. London: Longman, 2002. ISBN 0-582-36958-4
  • Di Scala, Spencer. Italy: From Revolution to Republic, 1700 to the Present. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8133-4176-0
  • Hearder, H. Cavour. Bari: Laterza, 2000. ISBN 88-420-5803-3
  • Holt, Edgar. The Making of Italy: 1815–1870. New York: Murray Printing Company, 1971. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 76-135573
  • Kertzer, David. Prisoner of the Vatican. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. ISBN 0-618-22442-4
  • Mack Smith, Denis. Cavour. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985. ISBN 0416421806
  • Mack Smith, Denis. Italy: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1959. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 5962503
  • Norwich, John Julius. The Middle Sea: A History of the Mediterranean. New York: Doubleday, 2006. ISBN 978-0-385-51023-3

NoteEdit

  1. Alexis de Tocqueville (2008). Un ateo liberale. Religione, politica, società. Dedalo. p. 78.
  2. Lorena Forni (2010). La laicità nel pensiero dei giuristi italiani: tra tradizione e innovazione. Giuffrè. p. 79.
  3. Giorgio Dell'Arti (2008). Cavour: Vita dell'uomo che fece l'Italia. Marsilio.
  4. Beales and Biagini, The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy, p. 107.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Breve biografia di Camillo Cavour
  6. Hearder, Cavour, Bari, 2000, p. 26.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 CAVOUR, Camillo Benso conte di, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani
  8. Mack Smith, Cavour, pp. 68-74