Eastern European peninsula, in the Black Sea and Sea of Azov, disputed between Ukraine (de jure) and Russia (de facto)

Crimea (Russian: Крым, Ukrainian: Крим) is a peninsula in the Black Sea that separates it from the Sea of Azov. Crimea has a surface of 26,081 square kilometres (10,070 sq mi). It is about 200 kilometres (120 mi) by 320 kilometres (200 mi). About 2.4 million people live there. On the Crimean peninsula live Russians, Ukrainians, Crimean Tatars, Crimean Karaites, Krymchaks and Xoraxane Roma.

Satellite picture of Crimea

In 2014 Russia took control of the peninsula and annexed it. Most countries still say it is part of Ukraine. In 2018 Russia built the Kerch Bridge to connect it to Russia.

In 2022, the government of Ukraine recognized the Crimean Tatar indigenous people of Ukraine on the territory of the Crimean peninsula.



The Crimean Khanate ruled Crimea from the 15th to the 18th centuries. Late in the 18th century, the Russian Empire won a war against the Ottoman Empire and took control. The Crimean War was fought here in the 19th century.

Crimea was part of Russia until the Soviet Union gave it to Ukraine in 1954. Ukraine gave it a limited self-rule as an autonomous — Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The seat of the government is Simferopol, which is also the biggest city. Other major cities are Sevastopol and Kerch.

In March 2014, after a series of protests in Ukraine the month before, Russian troops took control of Crimea. A referendum in Crimea by Russia was held in which over 95% of voters voted to join the Russian Federation. The Crimean Parliament quickly proclaimed independence from Ukraine as a result. The area became the Republic of Crimea, a federal subject of Russia.

The referendum is not recognized by Ukraine or the international community. They still consider Crimea de jure Ukrainian territory. On March 24, Russia was expelled from the G8 (which became the G7), and on March 27, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 68/262, which states that the referendum was invalid and Crimea still belongs to Ukraine. In later months, the United States, the European Union, and other places started economic sanctions to prevent Russian people and goods from entering those countries.