The Crimean War (1853–1856), also called the Eastern War (Russian: Восточная война), was a war fought between Russia on one side, and France, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire on the other side. Most of the fighting, including the Battle of Balaclava, happened in the Crimean Peninsula, with other fighting in western Turkey, and around the Baltic Sea.
The Crimean War is sometimes called the first "modern" war, since the weaponry and tactics used had never been seen before and affected all other wars after it. It was also the first war where a telegraph was used to quickly give information to a newspaper.
The Ottoman Empire was declining by the mid-1800s. European countries, which wanted as much land around the world as possible, looked to the Ottoman Empire. The war itself started after the Ottoman Empire said France, and not Russia, had the right to protect Christians in the Holy Land near the area of modern-day Israel.
Russia sent an army to take part of Ottoman Romania, so the allied British and French sent an army and navy to stop that. When they got to their camp in Gallipoli, Russia retreated, so the allies decided instead to take back Crimea where Russia had its naval base. Russia had taken Crimea from Turkey in an earlier war.
The Allies won the war in Crimea, but gave it back to Russia in return for Russia giving back other places and promising not to have a navy on the Black Sea.
The Crimean War was a very important point in the history of warfare. It was not only different in the weapons it used, it was also the first war related to by press, by photography and journalists. Another very important factor was that it was the first war with real field hospitals, started by Florence Nightingale. Russia decided to make changes, including increased development of weaponry and the end of serfdom in 1861.
- Royle. Preface
- "The Crimean War: The war that made Britain 'great' - Telegraph". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
- Hooker, Richard (1999 [last update]). "The Ottomans: European Imperialism and Crisis". Washington State University. Archived from the original on January 4, 2011. Retrieved April 9, 2011. Check date values in:
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- Austria Chronology Crimean War Archived 2008-10-24 at the Wayback Machine
- France Chronology Crimean War Archived 2008-04-01 at the Wayback Machine
- Great Britain Chronology Crimean War Archived 2008-07-31 at the Wayback Machine
- Italy Chronology Crimean War Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
- Russia Chronology Crimean War Archived 2008-09-17 at the Wayback Machine
- Turkey Chronology Crimean War Archived 2008-10-03 at the Wayback Machine