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G8

eight of the world's largest economies

The Group of Eight (G8) is a group made up of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia (suspended), the United Kingdom and the United States. The European Commission is also represented in the committee. The group has conferences or meetings throughout the year, it researches policies, and has a summit meeting once a year. The heads of government of each G8 country attend the summit meeting.

Group of Seven
Map of G8 countries
Canada Canada
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
France France
President Emmanuel Macron
Germany Germany
Chancellor Angela Merkel
Italy Italy
Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni
Japan Japan
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Prime Minister Theresa May
United States United States of America
President Donald Trump

Each year a different country takes over the presidency of the group for the duration of the year. The country that holds the presidency sets the agenda for the year and hosts the summit for that year. The first G6 meeting was in 1975. Canada joined in 1975, making G7. Russia made it G8 in 1997.

The organization's official 2014 summit was not held in Moscow as previously planned, due to the seizure of Crimea.[1] In March 24, 2014, all seven member nations voted to suspend Russia from the G-8.[2][3] The meeting was held in Brussels instead, and the G8 will be called G7 since there are now seven leaders.

Contents

OverviewEdit

The G8 is not considered an international organization because it does not have administrative structure. This means that besides the president, there are no official titles for the members, they are all considered equal. Their meetings are not formal. The goal is to talk about global topics and problems in a relaxed manner.

There are many global problems and issues that can be discussed at meetings. Some common topics of discussion include: health, law enforcement, labor, economic and social development, energy, environment, foreign affairs, justice, terrorism, and trade.

Yearly summitEdit

The annual meeting of G8 leaders is attended by the heads of government[4] and other invited guests. It is usually held for three days in the middle of the year. Each year one of the G8 countries is considered the G8 president. The country of the G8 presidency is responsible for organizing and hosting a summit during that year. The first summit meeting was held in November of 1975 in France.[5]

Date Host country Host leader Location held Website Notes
1st November 15–17, 1975   France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Rambouillet (Castle of Rambouillet) G6 Summit
2nd June 27–28, 1976   United States Gerald R. Ford Dorado, Puerto Rico[6] Canada joins the group, forming the G7[6]
3rd May 7–8, 1977   United Kingdom James Callaghan London President of the European Commission is invited to join the annual G7 summits
4th July 16–17, 1978   West Germany Helmut Schmidt Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
5th June 28–29, 1979   Japan Masayoshi Ōhira Tokyo
6th June 22–23, 1980   Italy Francesco Cossiga Venice
7th July 20–21, 1981   Canada Pierre E. Trudeau Montebello, Quebec
8th June 4–6, 1982   France François Mitterrand Versailles
9th May 28–30, 1983   United States Ronald Reagan Williamsburg, Virginia
10th June 7–9, 1984   United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher London
11th May 2–4, 1985   West Germany Helmut Kohl Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia
12th May 4–6, 1986   Japan Yasuhiro Nakasone Tokyo
13th June 8–10, 1987   Italy Amintore Fanfani Venice
14th June 19–21, 1988   Canada Brian Mulroney Toronto
15th July 14–16, 1989   France François Mitterrand Paris
16th July 9–11, 1990   United States George H. W. Bush Houston, Texas
17th July 15–17, 1991   United Kingdom John Major London
18th July 6–8, 1992   Germany Helmut Kohl Munich, Bavaria
19th July 7–9, 1993   Japan Kiichi Miyazawa Tokyo
20th July 8–10, 1994   Italy Silvio Berlusconi Naples
21st June 15–17, 1995   Canada Jean Chrétien Halifax, Nova Scotia [7]
22nd June 27–29, 1996   France Jacques Chirac Lyon International organizations which are invited include: United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization.[8]
23rd June 20–22, 1997   United States Bill Clinton Denver, Colorado [9] Russia joins the group, forming G8
24th May 15–17, 1998   United Kingdom Tony Blair Birmingham, England [10]
25th June 18–20, 1999   Germany Gerhard Schröder Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia [11]
26th July 21–23, 2000   Japan Yoshiro Mori Nago, Okinawa [12]
27th July 20–22, 2001   Italy Silvio Berlusconi Genoa [13]
28th June 26–27, 2002   Canada Jean Chrétien Kananaskis, Alberta [14]
29th June 2–3, 2003   France Jacques Chirac Évian-les-Bains [1]
30th June 8–10, 2004   United States George W. Bush Sea Island, Georgia [15]
31st July 6–8, 2005   United Kingdom Tony Blair Gleneagles, Scotland [16]
32nd July 15–17, 2006   Russia Vladimir Putin Strelna, St. Petersburg [2]
33rd June 6–8, 2007   Germany Angela Merkel Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern [3]
34th July 7–9, 2008   Japan Yasuo Fukuda Toyako (Lake Toya), Hokkaido [17]
35th July 8–10, 2009   Italy Silvio Berlusconi L'Aquila, Abruzzo [4]
36th June 25–26, 2010[18]   Canada Stephen Harper Huntsville, Ontario[19] [20]
37th May 26–27, 2011   France Nicolas Sarkozy Deauville,[21][22] Basse-Normandie [23]
38th May 18–19, 2012   United States Barack Obama Camp David[24]
39th June 17-18, 2013   United Kingdom David Cameron Enniskillen, Northern Ireland
40th (suspended) 2014   Russia Vladimir Putin
    -- expected
Moscow[25] Cancelled
41st June 4-5, 2015   Germany Angela Merkel Schloss Elmau, Garmisch, Bavaria
42nd May 26-27, 2016   Japan Shinzō Abe Shima, Mie Prefecture
43rd May 26–27, 2017   Italy Paolo Gentiloni Taormina, Sicily

Economic powerEdit

The eight countries that make up the G8 represent about 14% of the people in the world but produce over 65% of the world's economic output measured by gross domestic product (GDP).

2004 Population GDP
  Millions of people % Billions of dollars %
World 6345.1 100.0 39833.6 100.0
  United States 350.5 4.6 12179.9 30.7
  Japan 127.8 2.0 4749.9 11.9
  Germany 82.6 1.3 2749.0 6.3
  United Kingdom 59.4 0.9 2136.4 5.2
  France 60.0 0.9 1858.7 4.7
  Italy 57.6 0.9 1503.6 3.8
  Canada 31.9 0.5 905.6 2.3
  Russia 142.8 2.3 487.3 1.2
G8 855.6 13.5 26270.4 66.1

Source: World Development Report 2006, World Bank

ReferencesEdit

 
The 36th G8 summit in Huntsville, Ontario in Canada
 
The 38th G8 summit at Camp David in the US.
  1. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-26722668
  2. http://www.cnn.com/2014/03/24/politics/obama-europe-trip/index.html
  3. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/25/world/europe/obama-russia-crimea.html?hp
  4. Feldman, Adam. "What's Wrong With The G-8," Forbes. July 7, 2008; retrieved 2012-3-16.
  5. Hajnal, Peter I. (1999). The G8 System and the G20: Evolution, Role and Documentation, p. 30.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Shabecoff, Philip. "Go-Slow Policies Urged by Leaders in Economic Talks; Closing Statement Calls for Sustained Growth Coupled With Curbs on Inflation; Ford's Aims Realized; 7 Heads of Government Also Agree to Consider a New Body to Assist Italy Co-Slow Economic Policies Urged by 7 Leaders," New York Times. June 29, 1976; Chronology, June 1976.
  7. "Halifax G7 Summit 1995". Chebucto.ns.ca. 2000-05-28. http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Current/HalifaxSummitG7/. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
  8. Kirton, John. "A Summit of Substantial Success: The Performance of the 2008 G8"; page 88 and 89 G8 Information Centre — University of Toronto July 17, 2008.
  9. "Denver Summit of the Eight". State.gov. http://www.state.gov/www/issues/economic/summit/g8.html. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  10. "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 1998-12-12. Archived from the original on 1998-12-12. https://web.archive.org/web/19981212012854/http://birmingham.g8summit.gov.uk/. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
  11. "1999 G8 summit documents". Web.archive.org. 2005-02-26. Archived from the original on 2005-02-26. https://web.archive.org/web/20050226154039/http://www.sipri.org/contents/expcon/1999summit.html. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
  12. "Kyushu-Okinawa Summit". MOFA. http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/summit/2000/. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  13. "Vertice di Genova 2001". Web.archive.org. 2001-08-06. Archived from the original on 2001-08-06. https://web.archive.org/web/20010806171931/http://www.g8italia.it/index.html. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  14. "UT G8 Info. Centre. Kananaskis Summit 2002. Summit Contents". G8.utoronto.ca. http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/summit/2002kananaskis/. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  15. "Sea Island Summit 2004". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/g8/2004/. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  16. "Special Reports | G8_Gleneagles". BBC News. 2008-09-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/uk/2005/g8_gleneagles/default.stm. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  17. "Hokkaido Toyako Summit – TOP". Mofa.go.jp. http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/summit/2008/index.html. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  18. "Canada's G8 Plans" (PDF). http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/evaluations/2010muskoka/2010plans/2010-g8plans-100623.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
  19. "Prime Minister of Canada: Prime Minister announces Canada to host 2010 G8 Summit in Huntsville". Pm.gc.ca. http://pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?id=2155. Retrieved 2010-02-08.
  20. "2010 Muskoka Summit". Canadainternational.gc.ca. http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/g8/summit-sommet/2010/index.aspx?lang=eng&menu_id=88. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
  21. "Le prochain G20 aura lieu à Cannes," Le point. November 12, 2010.
  22. The City of Deauville Official 2011 G8 website. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  23. "Home – French Presidency of the G-8". G20-g8.com. http://www.g20-g8.com/g8-g20/g8/english/home.18.html. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
  24. www.g8.utoronto.ca
  25. "Moscow likely to host G8 summit in 2014 – Dvorkovich". Interfax Europe Ltd.. http://www.interfax.co.uk/russia-cis-general-news-bulletins-in-english/moscow-likely-to-host-g8-summit-in-2014-dvorkovich/. Retrieved 2012-02-17.

Other websitesEdit