|State of Texas|
The Lone Star State
|State song(s): "Texas, Our Texas"|
|Official language||No official language|
|Spoken languages||Predominantly English;|
Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority
Tejano (usually only used for Hispanics)
|Largest metro||Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex|
|• Total||268,581 sq mi |
|• Width||773 miles (1,244 km)|
|• Length||790 miles (1,270 km)|
|• % water||2.6|
|• Latitude||25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N|
|• Longitude||93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W|
|• Total||28,701,845 (2018 est.)|
|• Density||108/sq mi (40.6/km2)|
|• Median household income||$56,473 (26th)|
|• Highest point||Guadalupe Peak|
8,751 ft (2667.4 m)
|• Mean||1,700 ft (520 m)|
|• Lowest point||Gulf of Mexico|
|Before statehood||Republic of Texas|
|Admission to Union||December 29, 1845 (28th)|
|Governor||Greg Abbott (R)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Dan Patrick (R)|
|• Upper house||Senate|
|• Lower house||House of Representatives|
|U.S. Senators||John Cornyn (R)|
Ted Cruz (R)
|U.S. House delegation||23 Republicans|
13 Democrats (list)
|• Majority of state||Central: UTC −6/−5|
|• El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson counties||Mountain: UTC −7/−6|
|Texas state symbols|
The Flag of Texas
The Seal of Texas
|Bird||Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)|
|Fish||Guadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii)|
|Flower||Bluebonnet (Lupinus spp., namely Texas bluebonnet, L. texensis)|
|Insect||Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)|
|Mammal||Texas longhorn, nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)|
|Reptile||Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)|
|Tree||Pecan (Carya illinoinensis)|
|Shell||Lightning whelk (Busycon perversum pulleyi)|
|Slogan||The Friendly State|
|Other||Molecule: Buckyball (For more, see article)|
|State route marker|
Released in 2004
|Lists of United States state symbols|
Texas has been controlled by Spain, France, the Confederate States of America, and Mexico. It declared its independence from Mexico in 1836. It was its own country, the Republic of Texas, for 9 years (1836-1845).
There are many famous attractions in Texas. Fort Worth is known for its stockyards. Amarillo is known for the cattle business and stockyards. In Dallas, industrial technology companies including Texas Instruments and EDS have their home offices.
San Antonio has The Alamo. Houston has the Johnson Space Center. Austin has the University of Texas at Austin. Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Baylor University in Waco and the University of North Texas in Denton are other important universities in the state.
The state's name derives from táyshay, a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai (a Native American tribe), which means "allies" or "friends."
Texas was first explored in 1528 by Spanish explorers on accident (they arrived when their ship sank off the coast). It did not become a colony until 1685, when France claimed it. In response, Spain set up a rival colony in 1691 by setting up a religious outpost in the eastern part of Texas. Spain did not come back to Texas until 1716 to protect its colonies in the west from French forces. Two years later, San Antonio was started.
The pressure between the Spaniards and Native Americans in East Texas stopped many settlers from coming to Texas. To stop the violence and the increasing Native American raids, Spain called a truce between many tribes in 1745 and 1789.
Tensions rose in Texas after the United States bought a large amount of nearby land from France in 1803. This land was called the Louisiana Purchase. People began wondering whether Spain or the United States could claim Texas.
Mexico won the Mexican War of Independence in 1821. Mexico, including Texas, was free from the Spanish Empire. Americans and other settlers came into Texas when Mexico allowed non-Spanish settlers to settle here. After many settlers came to Texas, Mexico started taxing non-citizens. This outraged many settlers. Those from the South were even more outraged because Mexico banned all slavery in 1829 (many southerners saw slavery as a way of life back then). On March 2, 1836, Texas declared independence from Mexico and soon they were at war. Texas won, but Mexico refused to recognize Texas as an independent. Texas soon asked to become a state of the United States. Years later, in 1845, the US added Texas as a state, and Mexico broke off diplomatic relations. Mexico resisted offers by the U.S. to buy land extending from Texas to the Pacific Ocean. In 1846, a dispute over the border between Texas and Mexico resulted in armed conflict, and the Mexican-American War began. The United States won the war, and by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo won lands that later formed the states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, southwestern Colorado, and southwestern Wyoming. Mexico received 15 million dollars and gave up its claims to Texas.
After Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States, Texas joined the newly formed Confederate States of America in 1861 and fought in the American Civil War in an attempt to become independent from the United States. The Confederates lost to the Union (the United States) in 1865. Texas was restored to full representation in Congress on March 30, 1870.
On January 10, 1901, oil was found in Texas, leading to the founding of a richer economy. During a time when the economy was bad, many people left Texas. Texas did not regain its population it lost until the 1950s and 60s. In recent years, Texas has been exploring technology and computers.
Texas is the second biggest state in the Union (after Alaska) and is bigger than every European country except Russia. It has mountains, forests, deserts, plains, and coasts. The largest river in Texas is the Rio Grande, which forms the border between Mexico and the United States throughout south Texas. The highest mountain in Texas is Guadalupe Peak.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Texas.|
- Texas—Languages. MLA. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
- Plocheck, Robert. Facts. Texas Almanac (2010–2011 ed.). Archived from the original on January 29, 2013.
- Environment. Texas Almanac. 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- "El Capitan". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/ds_mark.prl?PidBox=CD0994. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
- "Mountain Time Zone Boundary". www.timetemperature.com. Retrieved April 13, 2018.